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Govt 2305 Week 2 Notes

by: Jennifer D

Govt 2305 Week 2 Notes Govt 2305

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Jennifer D
Austin Community College

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These notes cover whats going to be on our exam
United States Government
Lynn Lehle
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer D on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Govt 2305 at Austin Community College taught by Lynn Lehle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see United States Government in Government at Austin Community College.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
U.S. Govt 2305 Chapter 2 Review Key Terms Lynn Lehle 1. Mayflower Compact: (1620) pilgrims signed a “social contract” that stated they would  make laws for the general good of the people, be subject to the rule of law, use majority  rule and the idea of the consent of the people.   Social contract  Make laws for the general good of the people 2. Bill of Rights: are the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution. They limit  government from infringing on freedoms of speech, press, religion, assembly and the  rights of the criminally accused.   Limit government from infringing on freedoms  Speech, press, religion, assembly and rights of the criminally accused  First 10 Amendments of the Constitution 3. First Continental Congress: (1774) gathered delegates of the colonies to discuss their  grievances with British King George III.  Representatives of the colonies meet to discuss grievances with the king  High taxes on tea 4. Second Continental Congress: (1775) colonists met to assume the powers of a central  government and establish an army and declare independence from Great Britain in 1776.  War congress  Establish an army  Assume the powers of government 5. The Congress from 1774­1789 was a Unicameral (one house) legislature.  “one house”  All met in one room Page 1 of 5 6. Confederation: is a league of independent states that are united only for the purpose of  achieving common goals.  Independent states united to achieve common goals 7. Articles of Confederation: was our nation’s first constitution following the American  Revolutionary war with Great Britain. The Articles established a confederal form of  government in which the central government had few powers. In the Declaration of  Independence, the “Free and Independent states had the power to levy War, conclude  Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce” … and have other rights of states.  First U.S. Constitution  Contract Alliances (with France) 8. Daniel Shay led a Rebellion (Shay’s Rebellion) in Massachusetts in 1786 of ~2000  angry farmers to disrupt debtors’ trials and then attacked the national arsenal. Shays  Rebellion and other uprisings against the government were a catalyst for the founding  fathers to create a strong national government.  First tax rebellion  2000 angry farmers disrupted debtors’ trials  Marched on national arsenal  Catalyst for founding fathers to create a stronger central government 9. In Philadelphia in 1787 a convention (meeting of state delegates) was held to revise the  Articles of Confederation. Instead they wrote a new Constitution which established a  federal form of government and it became the Constitutional Convention.   Philadelphia  Called to address the problems of the nation  Wrote a new Constitution  Large states v. small states 10. Great Compromise: a plan for bicameral legislature in which one chamber would be  based on population and the other chamber would represent each state equally. Also  known as the Connecticut Compromise.  Large states and small states fight over representation in congress  Senate:  100 people in Senate today 11. Slavery was another conflict between the states. It was partially solved by allowing the  slave states to count slaves as three­fifths of a person for purposes of representation in  Page 2 of 5 the House. It was eventually overturned in 1868 after the Civil War by the 13  h Amendment (no slaves) and the 14  Amendment representation in the House based on all non­Indian male inhabitants of a state.  Slaves counted as three­fifths of a person  More representation for having slaves (population) 12. In the Constitution, Congress could have the power to regulate Interstate Commerce  (between states), but would not tax any exports from the states.  Could be regulated by the U.S. federal government  State Ratifying Conventions 13. Federalists: were a political group led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams that  supported ratification of the Constitution establishing a stronger federal government.  Wanted stronger National/Federal government  John Adams 2  President and a federalist  Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote federalists papers  arguing the Constitution should be ratified 14. Anti­Federalists: were a political group that included Thomas Jefferson, who opposed  adoption/ratification of the Constitution because it created a strong federal government  and did not include a Bill of Rights to limit that federal govt.  Opposed ratification  Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson 15. Faction: is a group of persons forming a cohesive minority.  Cohesive minority group 16. Tyranny: is an arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power by an oppressive individual or government.  Anti­federalists worried about Constitution leading to tyranny 17. Rule of Law: is a basic principle of government that requires both those who govern and  those who are governed to obey the law.  No one is above the law  Government officials must obey the law Page 3 of 5 18. Federal System: is a form of government that provides for a division of powers between  a central government and several regional governments. In the United States between the  national and 50 state government as established in the Constitution.  Division of power between Central government and the states 19. Commerce Clause: of the Constitution gives Congress (Article I) the power to regulate  interstate (between states) commerce.  Interstate and international commerce 20. Madison Model: of government devised by James Madison in which government powers are divided among the executive, the legislative and the judicial branches of government. (See Chart #1 Attachment) 21. Separation of Powers: is the principle of dividing governmental powers among the three branches: executive, legislative and judicial.  Legislative  Executive  Judicial 22. Checks and Balances: is a major principle of American government (U.S.) in which  each of the three branches is given the means to check (restrain or balance) the actions of  the other branches. See fig. 2­5. (See Chart #2 Attachment) 23. Veto Power: is a constitutional power that enables the chief executive (president or  governor) to reject legislation and return it to the legislature (Congress) with reasons for  the rejection. Congress can then vote by 2/3’s of both houses to over­ride the veto…if  they can get 2/3s.   President can veto legislation  Congress can over­ride veto with 2/3 votes 24. Methods of Proposing an Amendment: 1. Three­fourths of the state legislatures can vote in favor of the proposed  amendment. This method is considered the “traditional” ratification method and  has been used twenty­six times. Page 4 of 5 2. The states can call special conventions to ratify the proposed amendment. If three­ fourths of the states approve, the amendment is ratified. This method has been  used only once – to ratify the Twenty­first Amendment.  Takes 2/3 of House and Senate to propose  Then ¾ of states must vote to ratify  Declaration of Independence (1776)  Thomas Paine “Common Sense” (1776)  General Washington crossing the Delaware River on Christmas Eve  British General Burgoyne saw he was defeated at Saratoga by common people (farmers,  civilians, etc.)  General Cornwallis surrenders: End of Revolutionary War  Santa Anna surrenders to Sam Houston  Revolutionary War: men were paid with land (Appalachian Mountains)  Promise on Land Grants used by both the Americans and the British Page 5 of 5 Chart 1 Executive Branch President Carries Out the Law Checks on the Judicial Branchks on the Legislative Branch  Appoints federal judges Can propose laws  Can grant pardons to federal n veto laws  Can call special sessions of  offenders Congress  Makes appointments to federal  postsChecks on the Executive Branch Checks on the Executive Branch  Negotiates foreign treaties  Can declare executive actions   Can override presidential veto unconstitutional  Confirms executive appointments  Ratifies treaties  Can declare war  Appropriates money  Can impeach and remove  Judicial Branch Legislative Branch Supreme Court Interprets the Law Congress Makes the Law Checks on the Judicial Branch  Creates lower federal courts  Can impeach and remove judges  Can propose amendments to overrule judicial  decisions  Approves appointments of federal judges Checks on the Legislative Branch  Can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional Congress The President  Can override presidential vetoes  Can remove president from office Appoints members  Senate confirms presidential  of Supreme Court Appointments  Senate ratifies treaties Executive Branch (enforces laws) President The President The Supreme Court Can veto legislation Can declare executive acts unconstitutional Legislative Branch C HECKS AND (passes laws) Judicial Branch Congress B ALANCES (interprets laws) Supreme Court and other federal courts Congress Can remove judges Supreme Court Can declare legislative acts unconstitutional


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