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Political Science 2311, Week 1-3

by: Chikasi Eche

Political Science 2311, Week 1-3 Political Science 2311

Chikasi Eche
GPA 3.5
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these notes cover what we've done in class from 08/30/2016 to 09/08/2016. there is a lot of material that will be covered in our first test on Tuesday the 27th of September 2016. I'll upload the re...
GOVT OF U S (2311, Nicole Horn)
Nicole Horn
Class Notes
political science, bills, Of, rights, constitution, Taxes, 2311




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chikasi Eche on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Political Science 2311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Nicole Horn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see GOVT OF U S (2311, Nicole Horn) in Political Science at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
POLITICAL SCIENCE 2311—007 PROFESSOR NICOLE HORN DATES: 09/01/2016 - 09/08/2016 What is government?  The government is a structure of rule. Conflicts that can happen within a government  Beliefs, values & morality  Goals and priorities  Resource allocation Types of government 1. Autocracy: A society ruled by one person and that person has all of the government power. i.e. Queen, King, Dictator. 2. Oligarchy: Ruled by a few people; the special or elite class. Gets its power from the military, wealth or social status. Laws that are passed benefit the elite. 3. Democracy: Ruled by the people. People have the power. What makes a government legitimate?  As long as the people consent to being ruled in that way, it is legitimate. Democracy can take different forms.  Direct democracy [Athenian] – every voter has a say in every political decision made. But women/slaves couldn’t vote. Works best with small groups of people.  Representative democracy – the government power lies within the people who vote to elect representatives. No one individual should have more or less power. One person = one vote and votes are weighted equally. [equal representation] How can the U.S. Constitution be amended?  Requires 2/3 s super majority rule  Cannot be ruled by majority rule [note: the president nominates someone into the supreme court by 2/3 s rd super majority rule] Minority Rights Racial numerical: a concern that a possibility of a tyranny of the majority. Rights of the people that are not part of the majority are overlooked/prosecuted. Pluralism – theory that in a society, groups are going to form around particular, specific, unique interests and pressure the government for their wants. CONSTITUTION The founding 13 colonies all had different laws and each colony had an elected representative assembly and had to report back to Britain. But they had significant legislative leeway/power.  Iroquois confederacy – an organization that was made of 5 different native officials from the tribes; Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Oneida. They had a written constitution that had checks and balances. Mid 1750s 1. 1756-1763 French & Indian War  American colonists fight alongside British soldiers.  French are trying to invade the American colonies from the west  It’s a 2 front war  Britain was left with a huge national debt after the war and began to exploit the colonies 2. The Stamp Act  Tax on paper goods: newspapers, business documents etc.  Colonists are not thrilled. “no taxation without representation.” Ask to be in the board that decides what and when to tax them.  Britain relents and removes the tax 3. The Townshend Act  Tax on glass, lead and tea  Colonists complain about this taxation, the British cave in and remove tax on glass & lead but not tea. [the British empire has the right to tax the colonies] 1773, Boston Tea Party  Colonists disguise themselves as native Indians and climb aboard a British ship and throw all their tea into the ocean. 1774, Continental Congress  Colonists write a letter to king George of Britain  They want their own council when it comes to the imposition of taxes  An end to the British military operation  They cite that some people are asking for a revolution, so as a solution let them be able to have local trials  King George rejects the letter and claims the people who wrote it are committing treason.  Colonists are becoming unhappy with the empire 1775, American Revolution DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 1. A call to action, to a revolution 2. Has good ideas; equality, self-government. These themes are reflected into the constitution. ARTICLES OF FEDERATION [Written during the revolutionary war]  The national government is subordinate to the state government. - The colonies/states were individualized - People had more attachment to their states - They fought against the tyrant king George and wanted more state rights.  Members appointed by each state. Each state got one vote.  Needed 9 votes of support to pass a law  To amend or alter the articles of federation all votes have to be unanimous NATIONAL CONGRESS 1. Had to establish a basic economy - But because it had such little power in the social system, they couldn’t implement taxes. 2. Establish a defense system - They didn’t have the necessary resources to build one. By 1784, congress was weak and ineffective 1786, Shay’s Rebellion  In Massachusetts there was a revolt  Farmers were about to be closed by banks because they couldn’t pay of their mortgages. - Farmers are angry at Daniel Shay because he made them join the American revolution. The congress was too weak and couldn’t help them. - Massachusetts governor writes to the congress seeking an army to stop the protests. - Congress doesn't have one - The governor gathers money and buys a militia to put down the revolt.  Sends a message to congress that the articles of federation is broken….  Civil unrest is growing. A meeting is held in Minneapolis to revise to articles of federation. They decide to write a constitution which is extremely hard. Virginia plan = Large State Plan A. 2 chamber congress B. no. of representatives of each state is determined by population New Jersey plan = Small State Plan I. authority to tax should be given to congress II. regulate commerce between states III. one state = one vote THE GREAT COMPROMISE i. 2 chamber congress: upper = senate [same number for each state (2)], lower = house of rep. [based by population of state] ii. all taxing and spending bills have to be introduced at the house level. THE NORTH-SOUTH COMPROMISE - Lawmakers from the south wanted slaves to be counted as people - Lawmakers from the north wanted slaves to be counted as property. o Slaves would count as 3/5 s of a person. o National gov. could only tax a slave owner 3/5 s of the price of that slave. o Place a tax on imports but all exports are free. The new standard to ratify the constitution is 9 votes out of 13. FEDERALISTS ANTI-FEDERALISTS Supported the constitution Did not. Thinks it gives too much power to the national government. Anti- president Liked the limited power of the Didn’t like the lack of citizen rights in government the constitution. 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 thstate to ratify the constitution Virginia and New York who were majorly anti-federalists and were big and successful hadn’t ratified the constitution yet. They did ratify it because the Bill of Rights was proposed. U.S. CONSTITUTION Main theme: dispersion of power - Dispersion of power between branches of government No one can have too much power - Dispersion of power between the government and citizens James Madison created the idea of having different branches to check each other. Fragmented Power. 1. Federalism 2. Checks and balances 3. Separation of powers The founding fathers wanted to give the gov. more power than they had in the articles of federation but fragmented.  Federalism: a government system where governing power/authority is shared between the central [federal] and the sub-governments [state] o National government – delegated powers - Expressed power: power granted by the constitution Examples a) Regulate currency b) Establish rules for naturalization c) Wage war d) Raising and funding money - Implied power:  “necessary and proper” clause: the federal gov. has the authority to do whatever is necessary and proper to carry out their expressed power.  Allows the Federal gov. to expand their power when they see fit. - Concurrent power: power shared by the national and the state governments  Power to tax State Government Reserved Pthers  Grounded in the 10 amendment 1. defining and punishing law 2. administering higher education and K – 12 schools 3. provide for general ware fare Federal systems of government allocate powers to both FED & States but also limit the power. Supremacy Clause - a constitutional provision that although the FED & states share power, the Federal Government is more powerful [clearly] - “national law is the supreme law of the land.” SEPERATION OF POWER I. Legislative branch: [congress] makes the law II. Executive branch: [president and bureaucracy] enforce the law III. Judicial branch: [courts] interpret the law - Legislative = confirms the presidential appointment - = approve treaties - = grant money - = declare war - Executive = conducts foreign policy - = make treaties  CHECKS AND BALANCES - Each branch has some power over the other - No single branch can abuse power. Judicial Review  It’s not a power outlined anywhere in the constitution  It was established by the Marbury v. Madison debate in 1803 - 1800 election: Jefferson v. Adams [ Adams lost] - Jefferson – anti-federalist, Adams – Federalist - Sec. of state: Madison, Adams appointed Marbury - Jefferson did not want to appoint Marbury.  John Adams was president before this election and his sec. of state was John Marshall who was also chief justice in the supreme court.  Marbury didn’t get his appointment letter to be in the supreme court. Madison finds the unsent letter. William Marbury writes to the supreme court a writ of mandamus; which asks the court to force Thomas Jefferson and Madison to deliver his appointment letter. [ in 1789 congress passed a law that would give the supreme court authority to issue a writ of mandamus]  Marbury v. Madison  John Marshall states that he doesn't have the power to put Marbury in court because he didn’t receive the letter.  This is the first time the supreme court has said that the legislative law wasn’t constitutional. This was possible because the writs of mandamus was a law and not an amendment. END OF FIRST SET OF NOTES.


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