Week Three Notes
Week Three Notes Psyc 287
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 287 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Pearce in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Psychology of Personality PSYC 287 Week Three Notes Book Notes Chapter 5: Personality Judgment Consequences of Everyday Judgments of Personality o Opportunities Shy people spend a lot of time by themselves – denying themselves the opportunity to develop normal social skills o Expectancies Intellectual Expectancy Effects Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968) – gave school children a battery of tests & then told their teachers, falsely, that the tests had identified some of the children as “bloomers” When IQ was tested @ the end of the school year, they actually bloomed According to Rosenthal’s theory, high-expectancy students perform better b/c their teachers treat them differently in 4 ways: o Climate: the way that teachers project a warmer emotional attitude toward the students they expect to do well o Feedback: the way teachers give feedback that is more differentiated – varying according to the correctness/incorrectness of a student’s responses o Input: the way teachers attempt to teach more material and more difficult material o Output: reflects how teachers give them extra opportunities to show what they have learned Social Expectancy Effects Mark Snyder & colleagues (1977) performed an experiment where two college students of the opposite sex hadn’t met o The girl got her picture taken & was told the boy needs to see what you look like – her pic was thrown away & he was given a pic of a different girl o They wanted to see how the girl would talk – based on if she thought she was attractive The study suggests that our behavior w/ other people is influences by how they expect us to act, sometimes based on superficial cues such as what we look like Expectancy Effects in Real Life Psychologist Lee Jussim (1991) – where do expectancy effects generally come from? o Suggest that the situation in real life is usually quite different Rather than restrict themselves to introducing expectancy effects in the lab, researchers should also study them in real life to access how powerful these effects are Expectancy effects are especially strong when more than one important person in an individual’s life holds the expectancy for a long time The Accuracy of Personality Judgment o By what criteria can personality judgments be right or wrong? o The philosophy of constructivism: reality, as a concrete entity, does not exist; all that does exist are human ideas, or constructions, of reality o Critical realism: holds that the absence of perfect, infallible criteria for determining the truth does not mean that all interpretations of reality are equally correct o Criteria for Accuracy Convergent validation: assessing the accuracy of a personality judgment Two primary converging criteria: interjudge agreement and behavioral prediction Psychological research can evaluate personality judgments by asking 2 questions: Do the judgments agree with one another? Can they predict behavior? o First Impressions The Face More recent studies have begun to focus on what are called configural properties of faces, or overall arrangements of features rather than single body parts – when studies this way, the validity of 1 st impressions seem more promising It is possible for people to tell whether a person is high or low in two traits just from looking at the face The level of accuracy is impressive and surprising The traits measures – agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, emotional stability, & openness Other Visible Signs of Personality Looking at someone’s bedroom, the kind of music one listens to, the way a person tells a story, the handshake o Moderators of Accuracy Moderator variable: one that affects the relationship between two variables Moderator of accuracy: a variable that changes the correlation between a judgment & its criterion The Good Judge Highly intelligent & conscientious individuals render better judgments (not clear that these traits were distinctive to the ability to judge people) The Good Target Some people seem readable as an open book, whereas other seem more closed and enigmatic Judgability is a matter of “what you see is what you get” Concealing your emotions may be harmful to physical health The Good Trait The finding that observable traits yield better interjudge agreement implies that peer judgment is based more on direct behavioral observation than on mere reputation Good Information Amount of Information – more information is usually better Quality of Information – more info. Is generally better, but it is just as important for the information be relevant to the traits that one is trying to judge o The Realistic Accuracy Model In order to get from an attribute of an individual’s personality to an accurate judgment of that trait, four things must happen The person being judged must do something relevant This information must be available to a judge This judge must detect this information The judge must utilize this information correctly A good judge is someone who is good at detecting & utilizing behavioral information A good target is someone who behaves in accordance with her personality in a wide range of situations A good trait is one that is displayed in a wide range of contexts and is easy to see 9/6 in class notes Chapter 3 continued Personality Testing o Undertaken to determine a person’s pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behaviors to gain insight into a person o Projective Tests: Theory: objectively meaningless stimuli elicit responses that provide insight into the respondent’s personality Response constitute B-data (behavior) Rorschach Inkblot Test: 10 “plates” or cards of symmetrical inkblots examiner shows client each card one by one & asks what he/she sees then go through cards a second time to ask client to elaborate on response each card has some representation of sexual anatomy there are different interpretation schemes TAT – Thematic Apperception Test: Hero: recognize the main character in the picture Presses: any environment factor that may affect the main character Collect L-Date before performing this test for interpretation No face validity: the idea that the questions being asked make sense Very difficult to validate o Need to take the test plus some other form of diagnostic assessment Relatively expensive o Time consuming to administer & score Multiple scoring systems/codes (Exher & Hopfer) render results unreliable (no consistency) Problems w/ Rorschach: Funder reports correlation of .33 between Rorschach scores & other criteria relevant to mental health He reports that using BESD, this means a yes/no diagnostic decision would be correct 66% of the time using Rorschach o Professor disagrees w/ Funder When will it be useful to have a yes/no diagnosis? Assumption that a random guess would be right 50% of the time is unsound o Base rate of mental illness is 20% o Guessing “no diagnosis” every time = 80% accuracy o Objective Tests: responses are less open to interpretation than projective tests, though pure objectivity is elusive Can obtain S-Data or B-Data Often lengthy in order to manufacture reliability using aggregation Designed using nay 3 basic methods: o The Rational Method: Write items that relate obviously to whatever you measure High face validity; relatively easy to create/common Most useful when: Items are relatively unambiguous (clear) & valid Client capable of self-assessment Motivation to see/distort is low o Factor Analysis Method: Can be used to explore whether test items fall into sensible groups = exploratory testing can be used to confirm whether test items fall into hypothesized groups = confirmatory testing start w/ long list of rationally constructed items (or items from pre-established sources) give the items to a large # of test subjects correlate the items Limitations Depends on quality of items Harming factors is subjective o Sometimes factor structure is difficult to interpret o Alpha inflation: arises when you conduct many, many correlations o Pure Empirical Methods: Assemble items Have pre-divided groups of people to complete the items Determine which items elicit different responses between the people in different groups Cross validate w/ new samples of people Very difficult to “fake” Problems with Empirical Method: No face validity leads to apparently absurd items o Difficult to justify if challenged Validation is crucial May be hard to generalize beyond validation sample 9/8 in class notes Chapter 5: Personality Judgments Consequences of Personality Judgments o Opportunities can be expanded or limited o Expectancy effects: Intellectual, social Occurs when an assessment of your personality allows you to act in the way of that assessment Intellectual Expectancy Effects o Pygmalion Effect (“self-fulfilling prophecy”) o Target of the expectations need not know about them to be affected o Observed in classroom & workplace settings o Negative expectations can have negative effect o Difficult to test Golem effect for ethical reasons o The 3 factors including input & output Social Expectancy Effects o Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid Male participants shown false pictures of female participants Telephone conversation recorded between participants Raters heard only female participants’ words & rated her warmth, humorousness, and poise Results are consistent w/ expectancy effects, but validity is open to question Stereotype Threat o Expectancy effects can be based on stereotypes about an entire group o When people are place in situations where they might confirm negative stereotype, they tend to perform poorly on tasks Effect is increased when task difficulty increases; the person believes the task measures her ability; the person wishes to perform well & identifies w/ stereotyped groups o Stereotype life – stereotype boost Accuracy of Personality Judgments o Accuracy corresponds to validity o Convergent validity: use multiple judgments/assessments to determine accuracy Interjudge agreement is like interrater reliability Behavioral prediction is a form of convergent validity First Impressions o Based on face No evidence of correlation between personality & physical facial features Evidence of correlation between S-Data & I-Date based only on face (r = .30 on extraversion, conscientiousness, & openness) Composite faces of most extreme outliers on personality tests could be correctly classified for extraversion & agreeableness o Based on other factors o Fashionableness leads to accurate predictions of extraversion o Loud voice leads to extraversion o Music preference correlates w/ certain personality characteristics, and can lead to accurate judgments Accuracy Moderators o Skill level of the judge It is hard to say whether effort matters Results of studies comparing skill levels of men’s & women’s abilities to judge personality are mixed Some evidence that accurate male judges are extraverted, well-adjusted, & unconcerned about others’ views of them Accurate women judges are open, have diverse interests, and value their independence Good judges tend to be interested in strong interpersonal relationships, have strong social skills, are agreeable, and have a positive world view Most people cannot accurately determine whether they are good judges of personality (S-Data) o Reliability of the target People whose behavior is consistent across situations are easiest to judge High batting average People whose behaviors correspond to their own personality self-assessments tend to be easier to judge & happier o The trait under consideration Traits associated w/ overt behaviors cure easier to judge than traits that are not associated with easy to observe behaviors o Amount of available information Observing a person in a particular situation for a shore time enables the observer to predict the subject’s behavior just as accurately as an acquaintance IF the situation is the same Increase in amount of information increases accuracy of judgments but no agreement between judges o Quality of available information Better information comes from observing people in weak situations To learn about behavior in a specific situation, observe subject in similar situations Realistic Accuracy Model (pg. 173-175) o Relevance, availability, detection, utilization Book Notes Chapter 6: Using Personality Traits to Understand Behavior Measuring traits has two important purposes: o To predict behavior & to understand behavior Single-trait approach: examines the link between personality and behavior by asking, what do people like that do? Many-trait approach: ^opposite direction – who does that? Essential-trait approach: which traits are the most important? Typological approach: stems from a doubt and a hope – whether it is really valid to compare people with each other quantitatively The Single-Trait Approach o Self-Monitoring Addresses fundamental issues concerning the relationship between one’s private inner reality & the external self, presented to others High self-monitors carefully survey every situation looking for cues as to the appropriate way to act, and then adjust their behavior accordingly Low self-monitors tend to be more consistent regardless of the situation, because their behavior is guided more by their inner personality o Narcissism People who score high in narcissism are often charming & make a good first impression & put more effort into their hairstyle, clothing, and make up They may become aggressive when their positive view of themselves is threatened & when other people reject them they may take out their frustration on individuals who weren’t involved The Many-Trait Approach o The California Q-Set Consists of 100 phrases: each phrase desecrates an aspect of personality that might be important for characterizing a particular individual Forces the judge to compare all of the items directly against each other within one individual, rather than making a relative comparison across individuals o Word Use People who used a relatively large # of certainty words were described by their acquaintances as intelligent, verbally fluent, the kind of person who is turned to for advice, ambitious, and generous People who used such words relatively rarely were more likely to be described as emotionally bland, exploitative, and “repressive” o Depression Women may be at risk for depression when they are over controlled & never venture outside the limits society traditionally sets for them For men, the risk factor is under control o Political orientation The Essential Trait Approach o Reducing the Many to a Few: Theoretical & Factor Analytic Approaches Psychologist Henry Murray – theorized that 20 traits (needs) were central to understanding personality Jack & Jeane Block developed a theory that proposed just two essential characteristics of personality called: ego resilience & ego control o The Big Five & Beyond Discovery of the Big Five The lexicar hypothesis is that the important aspects of human life will be labeled, & that if something is truly important & universal, many words for it will exist in all languages Fiske’s analyses found 5 factors that may have been the first emergence of what is now known as the Big Five Implications of the Big Five Neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness (or intellect) Each of the 5 is divided into six “facets” by some researchers and into two “aspects” by other researchers Extraversion Hans Eysenck proposed that introverts react more strongly and often more negatively to sensory stimulation than extraverts Neuroticism Persons who score high on this trait tend to deal ineffectively with problems in their lives & react more negatively to stressful events Conscientiousness The trait most closely associated with integrity tests Agreeableness Hogan (1983) suggests that this trait is associated with a tendency to be cooperative, an essential behavior in the small social groups in which humans have lived during most of evolutionary history Openness to experience/intellect People scoring high on openness are viewed by others as creative, imaginative, open-minded & clever Typological Approaches to Personality o Well-adjusted person: adaptable, flexible, resourceful, & interpersonally successful o The maladjusted over controlling person is too uptight for his own good, denying himself pleasure needlessly, and being difficult to deal with at an interpersonal level o The maladjusted under controlling person is too impulsive, prone to be involved in activities such as crime and unsafe sex, and tends to wreak general havoc on other people and herself
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