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PSY 150 notes weeks 1-3

by: Jason Zismann

PSY 150 notes weeks 1-3 PSY 150A1

Jason Zismann
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These are actually all of the notes that we went over in class in the first 3 weeks, I will be posting what we have gone over for Disorders this Friday to keep the notes up to date.
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Julie Feldman
Class Notes
personality, Psychology




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason Zismann on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Julie Feldman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
What is Psychology?  Psychology is the study of people and animal behavior o Animal behavior o Physiological/biological o Cognition & language o Sensation and perception o Social and personality o Developmental o Critical/counseling o Educational/school o Industrial/organizational Psychology as a Science  Attempts to describe, predict, and explain thought and behavior  Uses scientific method Belief-based explanations Scientific Explanation -trusted source(authority) -observed facts -consistent with larger framework -testable predictions -NO EVIDENCE REQUIRED -EVIDENCE REQUIRED -Disconfirming evidence/reinterpreted -parsimonious assumptions -Not tentative -tentative -Answer any question -answers questions that can be objectively tested Personality Notes: Groups of Personality theories  Psychodynamic (freud)  Neo-Freudian  Learning  Humanistic  Trait  Biological Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud) - 3 levels of awareness o Conscious, preconscious, subconscious - 3 systems of personality o ID (pleasure principle) o Ego (reality principle) o Superego (moral principle, conscience & ideal) Defense Mechanisms Mechanism Characteristic Repression Blocking a wish or desire from conscious expression Denial Refusing to believe a painful reality Project Attributing a conscious impulse, attitude or behavior to another Reaction formation Switching unacceptable impulses to their opposite Regression Returning to an earlier form of expressing an impulse Displacement Shift sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person (Mechanisms break down = psychological problems) - Stages of psychosexual development o Oral (birth to 18 months) o Anal (18 months to 36 months) o Phallic (3-6 years)  Oedipal complex, castration anxiety, Electra complex, penis envy o Latency (6-puberty) o Genital (puberty on) - Key assumptions 1. Motives (especially unconscious motives)  Behavior 2. Interplay of inner conflicts & resolution  Personality 3. Personality set by adolescence The Neo-Freudians Carl Jung (1875-1961)  Freud’s “Crown Prince”  Broad interests o Archaeology o Mythology o Religion o Astrology  Analytical Psychology Conscious Ego Personal Unconscious Collective Unconscious  The collective unconscious o We share the ability to see the world in some universally common ways because of our shared history as human beings  Animus & Anima o Animus: Male component of female psyche  Independence, aggression, competitiveness, adventurous o Anima: Female component of male psyche  Intuition, tenderness, sentimentality, gregariousness  The shadow o The dark side of human nature, Freuds ID, the devil, monsters  The persona o The social mask we all wear around other people, “false self”,  The self o This archetype guides our search for wholeness and unification among the various elements of our personality Alfred Adler (1870-1937)  Superiority complex vs. inferiority complex  Freuds missing piece: siblings  Oldest children: leaders o 55% of presidents are first born, first born represent 35% of people  Middles children: relaxed negotiators  Youngest children: clowns  Only children: perfectionists Erickson (1902-1994) Freud Erickson  Psychosexual stages  Psychosocial stages Vs  First few years of life .  Birth through death  Infancy (first year) o Trust  Feeds easily, sleeps well, eliminates regularly, minimal distress w/short absences o Mistrust  Fussiness w/feeding, sleeps fitfully, constipation, greater distress w/short absences  Early childhood (2-3) o Autonomy o Shame & doubt  Preschool (3-5) o Initiative o guilt  School age (5-11) o Industry  Reality-based activities, role of effort, better grades, agree w/socially desirable statements o Inferiority  Fantasy-based activities, role of ability, worse grades, less likely to agree w/socially desirable statements  Adolescence (12-20) o Identity  Fidelity/truthfulness o Role confusion  Inability to select major/career, identify w/popular heroes/groups  Young adult (mid 20s) o Intimacy  Approach relationships in caring and open way, willingness to share personal aspects of self, open & receptive to disclosures, live up to commitment even when it’s a sacrifice, need strong sense of identity o Isolation  Feeling apart from others, unable to make commitments  Adulthood (to 60s) o Generativity  Desire to create things that will outlive you (ex. children), creating & guiding growth for next generation o Stagnation  Inability of unwillingness to give of oneself to the future, preoccupied w/one’s own concerns  Old age o Ego integrity  Feeling that life has had order and meaning, accepting choices made & things did, feeling of satisfaction, wouldn’t change much o Despair  Feeling that life was wasted, wishing you’d done things differently, bitterness that things turned out this way Humanistic Humanism: The good stuf  Much of psychology has focused on the dark side of humanity  Humanists want us to examine the “bright side”  Ex. Spirituality, creativity, tolerance Carl Rogers Self Theory  The most innate tendency of humans is a drive towards becoming a fully functioning person o Actualizing tendency: urge to expand, extend, develop & mature Two types of Personalities  Self-actualizing with a positive self-concept: fully functioning person  Not self-actualizing with a negative self-concept: maladjusted person Congruence  Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)  Goal is: self-actualization o Self-actualization means experiencing fully, vividly, selflessly, with full concentration and total absorption… At this moment of experiencing, the person is wholly and fully human. o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Most need have to do with survival physically and psychologically  “ For a man who is extremely and dangerously hungry no other interest exists but ”oMaslow (1943)  On the whole an individual cannot satisfy any level unless needs below are satisfied  Maslow emphasizes need for self-actualization in a healthy individual’s prime motivation  Self-actualization means actualizing one’s potential becoming all on is capable of becoming The Trait Perspective  2 key themes o 1. People display consistency in their actions, thoughts and feelings o 2. People differ from each other in many ways  Five Factor Model Costa & McCrae (1990s) o Extraversion (E)  Degree of interpersonal interaction/activity level o Neuroticism (N)  Degree of emotional stability o Agreeableness (A)  Quality of interpersonal orientation o Conscientiousness (C)  Degree of organization, goal-orientation o Openness to Experience (O)  Preference for exploration, tolerance of unfamiliar Biological theory  A few approaches to personality & their favored assessment technique o Psychodynamic  Projective tests aimed at revealing unconscious motives  Projective tests  An instrument that indirectly measures motives, desires or emotions by asking the subject to respond to an ambiguous stimulus (such as an inkblot, a vague photo or open-ended sentence  Rorschach’s inkblot test  Most widely used  The test assumes that what we see in its 10 symmetric inkblots reflects our inner feelings and conflict  Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)  Projective test in which people respond to a series of ambiguous scenes involving one, two or three persona by telling a story about it o Humanistic  Questionnaire assessments of self-concept & self-acualization  A short scale measuring self-actualization  Indicates the extent to which each of the following statements applies to you, using a 4-point scale: 1 = disagree; 2 = disagree somewhat; 3 = agree somewhat; 4 = agree o 1. I do not feel ashamed of any of my emotions. o 2.I feel I must do what others expect me to do. o 3. I feel that people are essentially goof and can be trusted. o 4. I feel free to be angry to those I love. o 5. It is always necessary that others approve of what I do. o 6. I don’t accept my own weakness. o 7. I can like people without having to approve them. o 8. I fear failure. o 9.I avoid attempts to analyze and simplify complex domains. o 10. It is better to be yourself than to be popular. o 11. I have no mission in life to which I feel especially dedicated. o 12.I can express my feeling even when they may result in undesirable consequences. o 13. I don’t feel responsible to help anybody. o 14. I am bothered by feeling of being inadequate. o 15. I am loved because I give love. o Trait  Objective psychological tests to assess the strength of different traits  Objective tests o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  Assesses disorders (ex. Depression, hysteria) rather than normal personality traits  Items empirically derived  Sample questions from the MMPI: Dimension of Paranoia o Someone has been trying to poison me o I believe I am being followed o I feel uneasy indoors o Even when I am with people, I am lonely much of the time


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