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EPS101: Week 3 - Silicates, Bowen's Reaction Series

by: Tristen Pennington

EPS101: Week 3 - Silicates, Bowen's Reaction Series EPS 101

Marketplace > University of New Mexico > Earth and Planetary Sciences > EPS 101 > EPS101 Week 3 Silicates Bowen s Reaction Series
Tristen Pennington
GPA 3.3
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About this Document

These notes cover Silicate Minerals and Bowen's Reaction Series. Included are graphics of silica tetrahedron and a graphic of BRS.
How the Earth Works-An Introduction to Geology
Yemane Asmerom
Class Notes
EPS, Geology, Silica, Silicon, minerals, Bowen, Earth Science, EARTH, PlanetaryScience




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tristen Pennington on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPS 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Yemane Asmerom in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see How the Earth Works-An Introduction to Geology in Earth and Planetary Sciences at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Tristen  Pennington   Sept.  14  2016   EPS101:  Intro  to  Geology  WK3     Minerals:  Silicates     •   Most  minerals  are  silicates.  (Si  and  O)   •   Basic  building  block  of  Silicates  is  silica  tetrahedron.     •   Isolated  Islands:  Connected  by  Mg  or  Fe.  (Olivine.)     •   Single  Chains:  Connected  by  oxygen.  (Pyroxene  group  -­‐  Augite)   •   Double  Chains:  Two  single  chains  connected  by  oxygen.  (Amphibole  group  -­‐   Hornblende)  Found  in  subduction  zones.   •   Sheet:  Connected  chains.  (Mica  group  -­‐  Biotite)   •   Framework:  3D  sheets.  Usually  very  strong.  (Feldspar  group,  Quartz)     Physical  Characteristics  of  Minerals   •   Color:  Darker  minerals  contain  Mg  and  Fe.  Discontinuous  series  has  Mg  and  Fe  –   Continuous  series  does  not.   •   Cleavage:  The  breakage  direction,  reflects  silica  tetrahedron.     Ex:  Quartz  has  no  cleavage  because  it  is  composed  of  framework.              Micas  has  cleavage  because  it  is  composed  of  sheets.              Olivine  has  no  cleavage  because  it  is  composed  of  islands.   •   Streak:  Color  of  powder.     Ex:  Hematite  is  brown.  Magnetite  is  gray.     •   Hardness:  Dependent  on  silica  formation.     Ex:  Graphite  is  soft  because  it  is  composed  of  sheets.              Diamond  is  hard  because  it  is  composed  of   framework.                     1   Tristen  Pennington   Sept.  14  2016   EPS101:  Intro  to  Geology  WK3       Bowens  Reaction  Series   •   Discontinuous  Series:  Fe  Mg  mineral.  As  the  temp.  drops,  these  minerals  react  to   create  the  next  mineral  in  the  series.  (As  long  as  there  is  enough  silica.)  If  the  temp.   drops  too  quickly,  minerals  become  solid.     •   Continuous  Series:  Minerals  at  the  top  are  first  to  crystalize.  Temp.  is  hottest  at  the   top  and  coolest  at  the  bottom.  Minerals  at  the  lower  end  are  more  stable  because   this  is  closer  to  the  temp.  of  the  Earth’s  surface.  Therefore,  minerals  at  the  top   weather  quicker.   •   Na  and  Ca:  Highest  temp.  is  only  Ca  –  Lowest  temp.  is  only  Na.   100%  Ca  0%  Na    -­‐    50%  Ca  50%  Na    -­‐    0%  Ca  100%  Na     Highest  temp.                Middle  temp.                Lowest  temp.     •   Silica  content  will  be  higher  as  crystallization  is  lower.         ( -­‐mafic%20rocks_files/image002.jpg )           2   Tristen  Pennington   Sept.  14  2016   EPS101:  Intro  to  Geology  WK3     Silicon  Tetrahedron     Silica  Islands       Silica  Single  Chain       3   Tristen  Pennington   Sept.  14  2016   EPS101:  Intro  to  Geology  WK3       Silica  Double  Chain         Silica  Sheets         4   Tristen  Pennington   Sept.  14  2016   EPS101:  Intro  to  Geology  WK3     Silica  Framework       5  


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