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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 2430 at Wright State University taught by sally struthers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Non-western Art in Art at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 2 Islamic Art September 2, 2016 Week 2 In class Notes Struthers Foundation of Islam Muhammad A merchant who recited God’s (Allah’s) revelations The Night of Destiny Holy book Qur’an Ka’ba Center of Islamic world Shrine; cubic By tradition, built by Abraham On the side is a rock given by an angel (Gabriel) Muhammad declared monotheism even though people began adding gods and goddess’ and other symbols Always covered with black cloth Symbolizes honor, to separate sacred world from normal world Minarets A tall tower, typically part of a mosque, from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer Aniconism No images of people or animals in holy buildings Never see images of gods God is so great, you cannot represent him Do not hold false idols Byzantine Aryan Baptistry Where people get baptised Has mosaics An image created from tiles, pebbles, or glass Called a tesserae Dome of the Rock A shrine; not a mosque In Jerusalem Reflects light with golden roof Covered in tile mosaics (added later) Central planned All abstract, no people or animals Ottoman period Used real gold with broken glass Where Muhammad ascended from heaven, from the rock Where God created Adam Rock is sacred in many religions Many of floral patterns inside Churches use images of saints and angels = iconic Calligraphy Beautiful writing Important in Islamic art Arabesques Meaning floral patterns Unique to Islamic art Meaning in an Arabic manor Chapter 2 The Islamic World September 2, 2016 Week 2 Text Notes Struthers Introduction The people of Western and Central Asia traded goods and ideas with Europe, China, and India Luxury goods of many kinds, including works of art, as well as technical, philosophical, religious, and other cultural information, traveled along the Silk Road and its many spurs or branches It is important to note that rises and falls in patronage of the arts were directly linked to the strength of those economies Works of art arriving from distant lands often inspired artists and workshops to create new styles The artists in two Western Asian empires along the Silk Road were working in styles that mixed elements of those from the past with new ones inspired by works of art arriving along the route Muhammad and Early Islamic Thought Muhammad Lived in Mecca An important trading center Home of the Ka’ba Shrine that reflects an earlier tradition in arabia of placing symbols of divinities in clothcovered wood frames in designated holy areas of limited access Jahiliyya Time of ignorance Qur’an Or Koran Allah revealed his wisdom to Muhammad in the form of the Qur’an Meaning revelation or recitation 114 chapters and six thousand verses Hijra or hegira Emigration Mosque Masjid in Arabic Place of prostration in prayer The great mosque in a town may be known as the masjidijami, the Congregational or Friday Mosque The entire congregation of the faithful will assemble there on Fridays for prayer and a leader will deliver a sermon from a minbar (a narrow staircase with a canopy at the top resembling a pulpit in a Christian church Muhammad is regarded as a prophet The Qur’an set forth the laws Five Pillars or acts that form the basis of their faith The recital of the creed represents a profession of faith: There is no god but God and Muhammad is His Messenger Prayer (namaz) is to be offered five times a day at dawn, midday, in the afternoon, at sunset, and before going to bed. Prayers may be offered in private or at a mosque. On Fridays, adult males must purify themselves and pray in the direction of Mecca at a mosque Muslims must give alms (zakat) to benefit the poor and support religious activities in the community To subjugate the body to the spirit and draw nearer to God, Muslims are required to abstain from food, drink, and sexual relations from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the ninth lunar month of the Muslim year If at all possible, all Muslims are expected at least once during their lifetime to make a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, where Muhammad was born. Sharia The legal system compiled by early Muslims in accordance with the teachings of the Qur’an Sunna Ancestral precedent or tribal customs Stems from the teachings of the Prophet Caliphs Deputy Commander Successor Sunnis Represent 85% of Muslims Shi’ites Shii Shias Believe that Allah wanted the caliphs to come from the family of the Prophet through the line of Muhammad’s cousin and son in law The Qur’an and Islamic Art The Qur’an says little about the role of the visual arts in religion Mecca was also home to Arab, Jewish, and Christian communities and lay crossroads of many cultural traditions Most of the major islamic works of art are decidedly religious Without human imagery Aniconic Without images Iconoclasm Imagebreaking Implies a stronger dislike of images and an outright prohibition against them Islamic artists created a wide variety of intertwining stems, tendrils, leaves, and floral motifs arranged in repeating patterns of great mathematics The elements of interlaces meander, often following the radiating lines of rosettes and stars, and ultimately connect and terminate in the right places Arabesques express the duality of earthly and spiritual matters and symbolize the divine unity that underlies all forms of earthly existence Calligraphy was the first Muslim art form to spawn instruction manuals, a tradition of connoisseurship Thinkers discussed it in aesthetic terms The theologian and writer alJahiz talked about the importance of “balance in the case of buildings, rugs, embroidery, clothes… by balance we mean evenness of design and composition” Byzantium and the Umayyad Caliphate The Muslim capital Damascus became the first major metropolitan center of Islamic art Jerusalem: The Dome of the Rock Earliest surviving mosque On the Mount of Moriah in Jerusalem The crowing of the Dome of the Rock has inner and outer wooden shells Sacred to both Jews and Christians The Hypostyle Mosque To provide the faithful with more places of prayer, Umayyad builders turned Christian churches into mosques Qibla Direction Hypostyle mosque Resting on pillars Rectangular courtyard with a roofed porch on the south side facing Mecca (the direction in which Muslims prayed) The porch roofs rest on colonnades, often palm trees Provided shade for worshippers Mihrab Niche or recess Center of the qibla wall Highly decorative Minbar Pulpit to the right of the mihrab Muezzins Announcers or criers Announce calls to pray Minarets Lighthouse Nearby towers or roofs of mosques Damasus: the Great Mosque Where a great set of mosaics reside It was destroyed and rebuilt several times Many of the original mosaics still remain Pleasure Palaces and Secular Art Leaders began building large palaces for themselves Lavish complexes with private gardens, pavilions, pools, baths, fountains, molded stuccos, stone reliefs, and mosaics Palaces were decorated with wall paintings Palaces included pools, baths, a domed audience ball, and complex patterned decorations inside and out The tradition of covering the bare structural parts of buildings with a richly decorative cloth of tilemosaics, paneling, and stucco recalls the nomadic practice of draping walls and enclosures with hangings , weapons, and horse gear The Umayyads and Their Successors in Spain Two most famous monuments the muslims left behind as they retreated The Great Mosque of Cordoba Alhambra in Granada Cordoba Cordoba An emirate, caliphate, and a great center of learning through the thirteenth century An emirate is ruled by an emir, an Islamic title of nobility given to a wide range of princes, military offices, and other men of power Horseshoe arches Shapes that were emphasized by the use of alternating light and dark voussoirs, wedge shaped stones Rib vaulting Polylobed arches with multiple lobes or cusps Arches were ornate, cutout, cloudlike shapes appear to defy gravity as they spring from their bases Every available space is richly decorated with mosaics, paintings, and gilding The complex rhythms of the arches and bands of color, along with the decorations in the dome, treat visitors to a splendid visual spectacle of astonishing otherworldly splendor Granada Christian monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Expelled Muslims Nasrids from Granada Inherited their palace The Alhambra “Red Fortress” Symbolized paradise Had four narrow channels of water Filled with rugs, stained glass, fine furniture, and courtiers in gold cloth The Abbasid Caliphate 7501258 Abbasids defeated the Umayyads Moved to their capital of Iraq Along the Silk Road Islamic law and religious philosophy developed here Baghdad and Samarra alMansur moved his capital to a site near the Tigris River Placed him in the crossroads of the Silk Road He employed 100,000 workers Spacious royal gardens included such exotic and inventive luxuries as mechanical songbirds perched in gold and silver trees One Thousand and One Nights Most widely read book in the world Preserved images of his court and medieval Baghdad The City of Peace There was much conflict between Turkic guards and the Arabs The walls of the Mosque of Samarra were very high and thick Ramp of the mosque led to a spiral minaret Writing had played only a minor role in the life of the Arabian societies of the desert Suddenly there was a new source of learning in the words of God Message was codified in forms that could not be changed Muhammad used secretaries to record some of his revelations The earliest script is the Kufic Derives from the long angular letters used in the early inscriptions carved on stone monuments To make poetry look even more attractive in book form, patrons hired artists to illustrate or illuminate the verses The Maqamat (assemblies) of alHariri is a series of fifty picaresque tales set in various parts of the Arab world which relate the misadventures of a wily old rogue called Abu Zayd of Saruj The artists of the paintings in the Maqamat and other illuminated tales from this period have left us a wealth of information about daily life in medieval Islam that is not found in the literary sources or the scanty archeological record Iran and Central Asia Arab interests in Western and Central ASia were further damaged by the Mongol conquests and the empire of satellite states they established along the Silk Road The Safavids prevailed in Iran and became a world power in commerce until they were overrun by Afghan forces The Saljuq Dynasty Iwans An arabic term for a high vaulted hall that is open at one end and used as a covered entryway and place of assembly Glazes Liquids containing silica and various metal oxides which when heated to very high temperatures in ovens, or kilns, become vitreous or glasslike, giving the clay an attractive, colorful, and durable surface Muqarnas Scales Deceptively strong, loadbearing devices Saljuqs were ambitious builders The iwan at Isfahan has survived so well in part because of these logically and mathematically patterned webs of interlocking and supportive cellular units The Ilkhans Shahnama Book of kings The Persian national epic Over the years it helped shape Persian ideals of nationalism Has illuminations The Timurids Many of the most impressive buildings commissioned by Timur and his dynastic successors were located in the heart of the city at Registan “Royal square” Madrasa Was built for Ulughbeg Schools for the study of Sunni religious law and first appeared in the 11th century to counteract the teachings of the Shi’ites The Seduction of Yusuf Based on the tale of Joseph and Potiphar’s wife Story appeared in the Old Testament and Qur’an Sufism The belief in dual material spiritual realities expressed eloquently in Bihzad’s paintings is also manifest in an Islamic movement The Turkomans Bahram Gur in the Green Pavilion Bahram was famous for his bravery in battle Framed section was illuminated Khamsa Romantic epic The Safavid Dynasty Created a powerful Iranian theocracy that revived the spirit of the Achaemenid and Sasanian Persian empires Caravanserais Courtyard hotels for caravans in which the sleeping quarters were directly over the stables and storage rooms Textiles When the textile business in Iran had been no more than a cottage industry, it was already an important part of the regional economy Warp and weft Symmetrical design familiar from other early islamic textiles with repeating patterns that reflect the basic grid The earliest Islamic carpets dates from the 13th century Anatolia and the Ottoman Turks Muslims had been attacking the Byzantine capital and failing to breach its walls Mehmed II and Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia Enormous domed church which has been built in Constantinople Four large pendentives under the dome represent the four corners of the universe Suleyman the Magnificiant and Selim II Designed at least three hundred buildings Suleyman was a trained goldsmith and enthusiastic patron of the decorative arts Represented a period of caligraphy, manuscript illustration, metalworking, textile design, and ceramics Saz Lively patterns of floral motifs Recent Islamic Art Islamic communities continue to build new mosques using traditional designs, while others are increasingly combining those traditions with regional and local building practices Palace sized structures with grand entryways, carpets, lamps, curtains, and balconies with staircases spoke to the power of the leaders as representatives of Allah on earth
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