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Lecture 2, Genetic Material

by: Josephine Notetaker

Lecture 2, Genetic Material bisc 120

Marketplace > University of Southern California > bisc 120 > Lecture 2 Genetic Material
Josephine Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the second Biology lecture.
General Biology: Organismal Biology and Evolution
Oliver T Rizk
Class Notes
Biology, genetic, material
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josephine Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bisc 120 at University of Southern California taught by Oliver T Rizk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Intro  ● Heredity­Variation  ○ Can take place on a variety of levels (people in a classroom: age, sex, skin color)     ● There is variation across species  ○ Insects  ○ Spots on a giraffe  ● Population  ○ A bunch of members of one species at one place at the same time  ■ Plants in a green house  ■ Bigger  ■ Amount of leaves  ■ Weight  ● Why does variation exist?  ● Patterns of Variation:  ○ Shared environment  ■ Light treatment can cause a plant to be smaller/bushier compared to its taller  counterpart  ○ Shared ancestry can cause people to look related  ● Heritability, inheriting genes based on ancestry, parents etc.  ● Variation in pigmentation between deer  ○ Observation: there is a difference in pigmentation  ○ Question: What causes this change?  ○ Hypothesis:  ■ Environment? Probably not because it appears to be a meadow  ■ Something internal (genes) that can lead to this change  ● A cell: basic building blocks of an organism  ○ Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic  ○ Some cells share characteristics  ■ Membrane  ■ DNA  ● Three different domains: Archaea and Bacteria are Prokaryotes  ○ Eukarya are what we interact with on a daily basis     Inside DNA  ● DNA exist in structures called chromosomes inside of cells  ○ Chromosomes are made specifically of DNA molecules  ■ DNA is wound up and condensed tightly  ■ Chromatin: DNA wrapped around protein  ■ Chromosome­>Chromatin­>DNA  ○ DNA and its structure is fairly new in the scope of science  ■ Double helix corresponds to sugar molecules  ■ Has nitrogenous bases that give DNA internal structure  ■ Bases inside of molecule bind in a repetitive cycle  ■ A­T  ■ C­G  ■ Adenine  ■ Thymine  ■ Guanine  ■ Cytosine  This is the basis of the genetic code    ● Proteins are able to perform so many different functions because they take many different  three dimensional shapes  ○ Shape is determined by subunits  ■ Amino Acids  ○ Protein is a polymer (polypeptides)  ■ Constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids  ● Every three bases codes for a single, specific amino acid  ● Protein is made by taking a triplet and translating it        ● DNA­>RNA­>Protein  ○ Transcription  ○ RNA is a single stranded transcript of DNA  ● It is not the environment so it is something inherent to the animal: its DNA  ● Different proteins are being made  ● No pigment is being deposited  Names to remember: Rosalind Franklin, Watson & Crick  The function of cells is carried out by proteins       Meiosis vs. Mitosis  ● Humans are used as an example more often because we are humans ourselves and we  are sexually reproducing organisms  ● Each somatic cell have 46 chromosomes  ○ Chromosome 1 is the biggest chromosomes  ■ As you move further apart, chromosomes get smaller and smaller  ○ 46: copies of 23  ■ Inherit one from each parent  ● Somatic vs. Gametic  ○ Gametic  ■ Sperm (testis) and egg (ovary)  ○ Somatic cells are diploid  ■ Two copies of each chromosome present  ○ Gametic cells are haploid  ■ One copy of each chromosome  ● Fertelization doubles the chromosomes  ○ Diploid zygote  ● Meisosis distinguishes from haploid and diploid  ● Mitosis does not change the total number of chromosomes: diploid to diploid   


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