Biology 97 Lecture 7 Class Notes
Biology 97 Lecture 7 Class Notes 61860
Irvine Valley College
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Idda Colcol on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 61860 at Irvine Valley College taught by Amy McWhorter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Genetics and Evolutionary Biology in Biology at Irvine Valley College.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Bio 97 (#61860): Lecture 4 Class Notes (Mendel Powerpoint Slides 25 - 50) I. A single-gene model explains Mendel’s ratios A. numbers matter when it comes to determining homozygous/heterozygous 1. only one recessive offspring determines one of parents is heterozygous 2. single heritable factor II. Complications when extended to human populations A. not 100% explanation for analyzing human genes B. human traits are affected by multiple genes C. difﬁcult to study simple mendelian genetics on rare diseases as a result of rare-alleles 1. rare alleles are hard to identify III.Product rule A. product of probability of A x product of probability of B IV. Sum rule A. one OR the other B. if these events occur together C. add the subtraction if events could happen at the same time V. Probability (Slide 34) A. ***most problems revolve around mutually exclusive VI. Dihybrid cross: two genes A. dihybrid mixture for 2 genes 1. for color and shape phenotypes B. unique ratio 1. similar to each other in terms of ratios VII.Dihybrid cross: 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratios A. 9:3:3:1 is phenotypic ratio, but can tell a little bit about genotype 1. for each gene, one dominant allele is expressed except for 32 wrinkled green B. 3:1 is the expected ratio VIII.endel’s Principle of Independent Assortment A. when 2 genes are inherited, they are passed down to next generation in same way they were ﬁrst inherited B. alleles independently assort in mitosis IX. Punnett square illustrating the genotypes underlying a 9:3:3:1 ratio A. remember that test cross is a cross between unknown and known genotype X. Dihybrid test cross A. 31:27:26:26 = approximately 1:1:1:1 1. direct readout of gametes XI. Mendelian patterns of inheritance in humans A. difﬁcult to apply genetics to human genetics B. not all phenotypes are governed by one gene C. autosomes 1. carried on chromosomes 1-22 D. heterozygotes - “carriers” 1. Aa does not have disease, but is carrier for disease XII.Family Pedigrees A. family pedigrees give us the ability to trace inheritance patterns B. use roman numerals to keep track of generations 1. ex: I - oldest generation 2. circles - females 3. squares - males 4. ﬁlled in shapes - diseased 5. empty shapes - non-diseased C. from the pedigree in (slide 47) 1. Elizabeth Eddy - carrier, “heterozygous” 2. her child dd has homozygous recessive genotype XIII.utosomal dominant traits A. if you see affected individuals in every generation, affected allele must be dominant 1. carried down every generation 2. just one dominant allele is all it takes to get affected XIV.Sample Problem A. blue - dominant B. light blue - homozygous recessive C. test cross between Aa and aa 1. chance of inherited A allele is 1/2 XV. Autosomal recessive traits A. more frequently with blood relations B. affected progeny do not necessarily have affected parents