NAMING COMPOUNDS- Chem Chapter 5 Nots from Textbook
NAMING COMPOUNDS- Chem Chapter 5 Nots from Textbook Chem 1301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1301 at University of Houston taught by Roman S. Czernuszewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 5 from “Introductory Chemistry” by Zumdahl and Decoste, 7 /8 edition th th Pg 99. NAMING COMPOUNDS Binary Compounds: compounds composed of two elements Two Types: 1. Compounds that contain a metal and non-metal 2. Compounds that contain two non-metals Naming Compounds that are metal AND non-metal (Types 1 and 2) Binary Ionic Compound: contain a positive ion (cation) and a negative ion (anion) -Cation is always written before the anion Pg 101. Type 1 Compounds: The metal present forms only one type of cation Ex: Na , Ca , Cs , Al These will NEVER change, no Na , or Al , or Cs + 2+ Type 2 Compounds: The metal present can form two (or more) cations that have different charges Ex: Cr can form Cr and Cr , Cu can form Cu and Cu+ 2+ Rules for Naming Type 1 Binary Compounds: 1. In the name, cation is always first, anion always second 2. A simple cation (obtained from a single atom), gets its name from its element. Ex: Na is called sodium in compounds that have Na + 3. A simple anion (obtained from a single atom), is names by taking the first part of the element name, the root, and adding –ide. Ex: Cl ion would be chloride -The charges of elements are not written when in compound form but when the elements are alone, individuals, then the charges are written Ex: Na and Cl vs NaCl -Group 1 and 2 metals are ALWAYS Type 1 Pg 103. Type 2 Compounds: Finding Which Charge Is Used In the Compound -the elements joined together must equal to a net charge of 0, thus the charge of the cation will be that that cancels out the charge of the anion and gives us zero Ex: FeCl 3 contains one Fe ion and three Cl ions- (3) + (-3) = 0 3+ Roman numbers can be used to give you the charge of the ion ex: Fe (III) is Fe Pg 104. Rules for Naming Type 2 Ionic Compounds: 1. Cation always comes first in name, anion comes second 2. Because the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is specified by roman numerals in parentheses -Transitioning Metals are ALMOST always Type 2 -Metals that form only one cation do not need a Roman numeral -Group 1 elements form 1 ions, Group 2 forms 2 ions, Group 3 forms 3 ions + Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III) Pg 108. Rules for Naming Type III Binary Compounds: 1. The first element in the formula is named first, and the full element name is used. 2. The second element is named though it were an anion (even if it’s not) 3. Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present like di (2), tri (3) 4. The prefix mono- is never used for naming the first element Ex: CO is called carbon monoxide, not monocarbon monoxide Pg 113. NAMING COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN POLYATOMIC IONS Ex: NH 4O , 3mmonium Nitrate Polyatomic Ions: charged entities composed of several atoms bound together Oxyanions: atom of a given element, in a polyatomic ion, that has a different number of oxygen atoms -When there are two oxyanions, the name of the one with the smallest number or oxygen atoms ends in –ite and the one with the largest number of oxygen atoms ends in –ate Ex: SO 32-is sulfite and So42-is sulfate -When more than two oxyanions make up a series, hypo- (less than) and per- (more than) are used as prefixes to name the members of the series with the fewest and the most oxygen atoms Pg 114. Ex: ClO - Hypochlorite - ClO 2 Chlorite - ClO3 Chlorate ClO4- Perchlorate Note* when a metal is present that forms more than one cation, a Roman numeral is required to show the cation charge Pg 116. NAMING ACIDS + Acids: 1. A substance that when dissolved in water, produces (H ) ions (protons) 2. A molecule with one or more H ions attached to an anion -most known for having a sour taste (Ex: lemons, citrus fruits) Pg 117. Rules for Naming Acids: 1. If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid will contain the prefix –hydro, and the suffix –ic, attached to the root of the element Ex: HCl (Hydrogen Chloride) dissolved in water is Hydrochloric Acid 2. When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name of the central element of the anion (or the anion itself), with a suffix of –ic or –ous. When the anion name ends in –ate, the suffix –ic is used. Ex: Acid Anion Name 2- H2SO 4 SO4 Sulfuric Acid HC2H3O2 C2H3O2 Acetic Acid When the anion name ends in –ite, the suffix is used in the acid name H2SO 3 SO3(sulfite) Sulfurous Acid HNO 2 NO 2nitrite) Nitrous Acid WRITING FORMULAS FROM NAMES *Tip: Learn the names of common acids and ionic compounds which will help with finding the names or formulas for other compounds Practice: Problem: Potassium Hydroxide SolutionKOH *K has 1+ charge and OH has a 1- charge Problem: Nitric Acid Solution HNO 3 *note: this is a common acid, memorize it Problem: Lead (IV) Oxide Solution PbO *note: Pb has a charge of 4+ and O has a charge of 2- 2
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