The Space Race (Part 2) - ASTR 1345 - Lectures 3&4
The Space Race (Part 2) - ASTR 1345 - Lectures 3&4 ASTR 1345-004
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sera (Notetaker) on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1345-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by James J Davis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 The Space Race (Part 2) th Astronomy in the 20 Century Unit 1, Lectures 3 & 4 American Response Explorer and Vanguard missions o Meant to study Earth’s upper atmosphere o Both ended in explosions due to faulty designs and a lack of coordination between departments Man In Space Soonest Project M.I.S.S. Goal was to beat the Soviet Union in manned space flight Would have used ballistic missiles & Air Force test pilots Would probably also have killed the pilot (one of whom would have been Neil Armstrong) HARP Gun (1962-1967) High Altitude Research Project Cheap option for suborbital flight Designed by Gerald Bull Infeasible for manned flight Project Babylon (1988) Gerald Bull’s project taken to Iraq where it was used to attack Israel and Iran Sputnik Crisis Crisis about the scientific and technological state of America The Space Race stats o Launched satellites into orbit -> Russia o Explored Earth’s upper atmosphere -> Russia o Sent humans into space -> Russia o Landed probes on other planets -> Russia o Landed humans on the moon -> US First Man in Space Yuri Gagarin o April 12, 1961 o Hero of the Soviet Union o Had to jump out of his tumbling vessel on reentry Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 More Soviet Firsts 1961: First human to orbit Earth multiple times (G. Titov) 1961: Venus flyby (Venera 1) 1962: Mars flyby (Mars 1) 1963: First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova) First space walk Launched two dogs into space and brought them back US Achievements Launched HAM (a Chimpanzee) on January 21, 1961 (before the first man was sent into space) Launched Able (rhesus monkey) on May 28, 1959 Race to the Moon Kennedy’s Goals o Land a man on the moon by 1970 o Project Apollo o Project Gemini o Project Mercury Project Mercury (1959-1963) Goal: Manned space flight st Alan Shepard – 1 American in space John Glenn – 1 American to orbit Earth (4 times) Gus Grisom – 2 American in space Mercury 7 o 7 astronaut team chosen to go into space Project Gemini Goal: Complete complex orbital maneuvers, docking, and endurance 10 flights in 1965 and 1966 st Ed White – 1 American to space walk Neil Armstrong’s computer failed on his mission and kept going off course, causing his vessel to rotate 60 times a minute until he could get in under control Gemini 6 and 7 o Rendezvous and exchanged astronauts Buzz Aldrin – had the most successful spacewalk due to his scuba diving experience Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Surveying the Moon US & USSR both studied the moon with orbiters, impactors, and rovers Project Apollo Goal: Land man on the moon and return them safely o Largest engineering feat in history Problem: needed a bigger rocket o Titan & Redstone Rockets were too small to reach the moon (250-mile range, moon: 250,000 miles away) Solution: Development of Saturn V super rocket Apollo 1 (1967) Live test of critical CM equipment o Rehearsal for February 1967 launch 3-man crew o Gus Grissom o Edward White o Roger Chaffee Untested system suffered numerous failures All astronauts died when there was a fire in the lunar capsule and they couldn’t get the door open o 1 month before the mission was meant to happen All members of the crew had stars named in their honor o Navi o Dnoces o Regor Battle for the Moon NASA o Saturn V o 13 successes, 0 losses Russia o NI o 4 failures More Apollo Missions Apollo 8 3-day trip to the moon Christmas Eve, 1968 Landed in the lunar daytime (good temperature, no stars) Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Apollo 11 First moon landing crew Two landers, one pilot o Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, & Michael Collins Time Marches On Space Shuttle Program – 1981 to 2011 International Space Station – 1998 to 2020 Unmanned NASA Missions Sun: Solar Maximum Mission, SOHO, Ulysses, STEREO Mercury: Messenger Venus: Pioneer, Venus, Magellan Mars: Viking 1 & 2, Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Exploration Rovers, Reconnaissance Orbiter, Phoenix Lander Moon: Clementine, Lunar Prospector, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GLAST Jupiter: Pioneer 10 & 11, Voyager 1 & 2, Galileo, New Horizons, Juno Saturn: Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 & 2, Cassini Uranus & Neptune: Voyager 2 Comets & Asteroids: Deep Impact: Dawn, Deep Space 1, Stardust, NEAR, Shoemaker Pluto: New Horizons Private Space Sector ULA & SpaceX: satellite launch companies Virgin Galactic: space tourism Bigelow: space habitat construction NASA Now No current manned launch capabilities o NASA uses Russian rockets Developing the Space Launch System rocket o Would be the largest rocket ever built o Orion crew capsule development OSIRIS Asteroid sample return o Asteroids are time capsules of the earlier solar system o Prelude to bringing an actual asteroid to Earth Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Future NASA Missions Asteroid capture (~2020) o Robotically tether to a small asteroid and transfer it to lunar orbit Mars sample return (~2035) o Land humans on Mars and bring back samples and people NASA’s Side Jobs Fighting wildfires o Western States Fire mission, fire environment equipment Finding ancient cities o Ubar, abandoned in 300AD, thought to be a myth until found Inventions: Memory foam pillows, LED lights, invisible braces, scratch-resistant lenses, highway grooving, oil spill cleaning
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