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Anatomy and Physiology Week 4

by: Kendall Notetaker

Anatomy and Physiology Week 4 ES 2030

Kendall Notetaker

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About this Document

Bone shapes and textures
Anatomy and Physiology
Dr. Anne Moody
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, bones
25 ?




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Popular in ES Exercise Science

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ES 2030 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Anne Moody in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in ES Exercise Science at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
ES 2030 Anatomy and Physiology  Chemical Composition of Bone o 1/3 is organic and contains:  Ground substance and collagen  Bone cells:  Osteoblasts: bone forming cells  Osteocytes: mature bone cells  Osteoclasts: large cells that reabsorb or break down bone matrix o 2/3 of bone is inorganic and contains:  Mainly calcium phosphates  Collagen fibers o Combination of organic/inorganic provides strength and resilience   Calcium resists compression, collagen resists tension  Bone adapts to tension and compression by varying proportions of  minerals and collagen fibers  Response to Mechanical Stress o Large, bony projections occur where heavy, active muscles attach o Wolff’s Law: the more force you put on a bone, the stronger (denser) it will  become  Bone Development o Ossification: process of bone tissue formation which leads to…  Formation of bones begins at week 8 in womb  Bone growth until early adulthood  Bone thickness, remodeling and repair  Physiology of Bone Tissue o Bone is a dynamic/active tissue o Small scale changes happen continually o Every week recycle 5­7% of our bone mass o Each day ½ gram of calcium enters/leaves skeleton o Spongy bone replaced every 3­4 years o Compact bone replaced every 10 years  Hormones o During infancy/childhood, bone growth is stimulated by growth hormone o During puberty, testosterone/estrogen promote “growth spurts” o Rising blood Ca levels trigger the thyroid to release calcitonin (stimulates  calcium deposit in bone)  Importance of Ionic Calcium in Body o Transmission of nerve impulses o Muscle contraction o Blood clotting o Secretion by glands and nerve cells o Cell division   Bone Remodeling o Occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed o Requires diet rich in protein, vitamins C, D, A, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium,  and manganese  Osteoporosis o Group of diseases in which bone breakdown outpaces bone deposit o Spongy bone of spine most vulnerable o Occurs most often in post menopausal women o Bones become so fragile that stepping off a curb can cause fractures  o Treatment: calcium/vitamin D supplements, increased weight bearing exercises,  estrogen replacement therapy to slow bone loss


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