New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 2 Notes

by: Hannah Millirons

Week 2 Notes AMST 203

Hannah Millirons

GPA 3.25
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Medicine in America

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Medicine in America notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These cover the Savitt & Starr readings and the PBS video.
Medicine in America
Robert J. Scholnick
Class Notes
#americanstudies, #medicine




Popular in Medicine in America

Popular in American Studies

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Millirons on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMST 203 at College of William and Mary taught by Robert J. Scholnick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Medicine in America in American Studies at College of William and Mary.


Reviews for Week 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/16
Hannah Millirons September 5, 2016 Medicine in America Week 2  Savitt o Blacks were physically and medically different than whites   Racial prejudice was the main cause of this ideology  o Blacks were more immune to malaria bc of genetic factors  Most West Africans and African Americans lack the specific antigen that  malaria attacks   Sickle cell also helps protect against malaria o Blacks were more prone to getting frostbite since their ancestors came from such  hot places o Blacks discharged less salt through sweat and urine, so they didn’t get dehydrated  as quickly as whites did o These traits were the proof that whites used to back up their reasoning for using  blacks as slaves instead of whites  o Slave quarters were an ideal setting for spreading diseases  Bc of this, diseases were usually family or household problems instead of  just individual problems  o Respiratory illnesses were cold month diseases and insect borne illnesses were  warm month diseases o Slaves had a much higher morbidity and mortality rate than did whites o Slave owners usually tried treating slaves with their own home remedies, which  normally exhausted the patient bc of how strenuous they are, before going to the  family physician  When being treated by a white physician, slaves usually had no say in  their own treatment bc physicians had to answer to the owners  Whites controlled almost every aspect of care when it came to  blacks  Usually didn’t let them choose how they were treated  o Whites occasionally let blacks perform certain healthcare roles   On most Virginia plantations, at least one slave learned midwifery  They helped at their plantation, their neighborhood, and helped  both black and white women  Most nurses were predominantly women  African American healers brought African healing methods secretly to the  plantation  o Slave owners wanted to keep slaves alive and relatively healthy so that they didn’t have to spend a ton of money taking care of them or buying new slaves  They were willing to cut corners so that they spent the least amount of  money caring for them  o Benjamin Rush 1746­1813  Physician and professor of chemistry and medicine  Studied in Scotland and Paris  Thought there was only one true illness and that was over excitement of  the nervous system and thought that the only way to treat that was to purge or bleed them  o Monogenism: all people are from the same species and race o Polygenism: all humans come from different species and races can be classified  by origins and colors  o Samuel cartwright  1793­1863  Born in Fairfax, va  Apprenticed with John Brewer  Wounded in war of 1812  Practiced medicine in Alabama  Concerned with yellow fever and other diseases that were characteristics  of the south  Visited New Orleans to research Cholera  Published on pathology and treatment of cholera in 1849  Published his series on report of diseases and peculiarities of the negro  race  Champion of the states’ rights medicine   Justified slavery  o Samuel George Morton (1799­1851)  Concerned with the brain and the skull  Dedicated to the idea that black brains are inferior   1830­ on: work focused on human craniology   Interest in phrenology   Published his most important work: 1839: Crania Americana  Superior brain o Caucasian o Mongolian o Malaysians o American Indians o Ethiopians  Argued that physical characteristics of the brain justified the superiority of certain races over others, essentially justifying slavery   Starr o There was common sense behind medicine and it was easy to be trained to do it at home o The doctors didn’t need to know why you were sick, they just knew you were sick and didn’t need or have any background information o People could buy into medicine and didn’t need to have the smarts for school,  they could just buy their degree  This made others wonder why they were putting so much effort into  earning a degree when they could just pay for one   o Homeopathic medicine  Holistic type of medicine that needs a little belief behind it in order for it  to work  Alternative type of medicine  Medicine wasn’t localized   Mostly about treating the symptoms of the illness and not the actual illness itself   Give the patient a small dose of their ailment and then their body will  respond to that   Flu shot o Botanic medicine  Special herbs that will heal people  Samuel Thompson  1769­1843  Came from NH  Famous herbalist  Felt that exposure to cold temperatures and should restore the  body’s natural temperature  o Used lots of herbs and steam bathes to raise the temperature (cayenne pepper, puke weed)  PBS Video o Martha Ballard (diary kept from 1785­1812)  Is a midwife and then takes care of the children that she delivers  She is also a nurse for them, so she treats them when they get sick  She has to deal with a scarlet fever epidemic  She lost her children to an epidemic, so it makes it difficult for her  to see other children die bc it reminds her of losing her three  daughters at the same time  Self­taught and not certified  o She didn’t lose any mothers and very few babies o Operation was only used for autopsies bc of the high mortality rate o Medicine was very collaborative back then  Midwife was normally called in order to help the woman through birth and the male physician/doctor was called to give the mother numbing  medicine and then just leaves  Male physician is paid double what female midwife is  o Pay wasn’t nearly as standard as it is today  She normally got shillings or if the family was poor, she would get food or other goods in exchange  o Laura Ulrich found her diary and interprets it so that we can learn about and  understand her life and life in that time period in general th th  Births became way more dangerous in the 19  and early 20  centuries bc   They didn’t wash their hands  They wore neckties, which carried numerous diseases o Women became scared of giving birth in hospitals bc of how high the mortality  rate was with giving birth   There is an extremely high maternal mortality rate in the US, specifically in Texas o Texas cut a lot of reproductive health funding and this could possibly be the cause  Women didn’t gain admission to Harvard medical school until the 1800s bc of Walter  Channing (1786­1876)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.