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PHYS 1270 Weeks Two

by: Kait Brown

PHYS 1270 Weeks Two PHYS 1270

Kait Brown

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About this Document

These notes cover information covered during week two of class.
Science and Technology of Musical Sound
Cheryl Lawler
Class Notes
properties, waves, terminology, Frequecy, amplitude, period
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kait Brown on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1270 at University of North Texas taught by Cheryl Lawler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Science and Technology of Musical Sound in Physics at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
W eekly Notes PHYS 1270.001 Science and Technology of Musical Sound Week T wo Unit One Wave T erminology Simple Harmonic Oscillators Wave T erminology  Question: Which of the following describes the motion of the material as a sound wave passes through, moving to the right? o Answer: Longitudinal  I always have trouble remembering whether sound is longitudinal or transverse. I think of it like this: Vowels can have a short sound (like the ‘a’ in ‘apple’) or a LONG SOUND (Like the ‘a’ in ‘acorn’) and that is why they’re LONGitudinal waves.  Question: A sound wave is different than a light wave in that a sound wave is… o Answer: Not capable of traveling through a vacuum.  Remember, sound waves need a material to help it travel. In a vacuum, there is no matter so the sound is incapable of traveling.  All waves share certain characteristics o Waves transfer energy, not matter o Terminology  Wavelength  λ  Measured in meters  Distance from one point on a wave to a corresponding point (point of the same phase) on the next cycle  Amplitude  A  Maximum change in any variable during each cycle of a vibratory disturbance  Frequency  f  Measured in Hertz (Hz)  1/sec  The number of cycles per second  Period  P  P=1/f  Number of seconds per cycle  Velocity  v  Distance moved/time moved  v=λ/P  v=λ*f  A.K.A. Chain of Inference o REMEMBER: PERIOD=RECIPROCAL OF FREQUENCY  Most convenient approximation of the relationship of sound velocity and temperature o v=[343+0.6(T-20C)]m/s o For every degree above (or below) room temperature (20°C) the speed of sound increases (or decreases) by 0.6 m/s  Why does the speed of sound in air depend on the temperature? o Disturbance in air (sound waves) are transmitted by collisions between air molecules o Between collisions, the molecules move freely, and (for a given density) their speed determines how quickly one collision follows the next. o The air temperature, T, is a measure of the speed of the air molecules o Speed proportional to square root of T v∞√T  Pressure o p=F/S o Force per unit Area (S) o The unit of pressure in SI units is the Pascal [Pa]=1Newton/m 2 o Standard atmosphere=1.0 atm 5 2 5 2 3  1 atm ≅ 10 N/m =10 Pa=10 *10 Pa =100 kPA ≅ 14.7 psi  A sound wave is a pressure wave o Regions of high compressions of low pressure (rarefactions) are established as the result of the vibrations of the sound source. o These compressions and rarefactions result because sound  Is more dense than air  Has more inertia  Waves have a speed that is dependent only upon properties of the medium  The warmer or colder the air, the more quickly or slowly, respectively, sound travels through it  Vibrates longitudinally  The longitudinal movement of air produces pressure fluctuations o Remember the illustrations of the dots in a wave? The dots getting more concentrated (compression) and less concentrated (rarefaction) are fluctuations.  Question: An oscillation of a sound wave is complete in 1.11 milliseconds (.00111 sec). What is the frequency of the sound? o Answer: 900 Hz  Remember, frequency is the number of cycles per second AND the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. So to solve this we divide 1 by .00111 and get about 900 Hz.  Sound is a wave that travels in a material medium, but what causes sound? o Sound is caused by an oscillation of a body.


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