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POLI201 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Cleopatra Shabazz

POLI201 Chapter 2 Notes POLI 201 -001

Cleopatra Shabazz
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These notes cover events prior to the Revolutionary War, the Articles of Confederation, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, Federalists vs Antifederalists and the Amendments to the C...
American National Government
David Darmofal
Class Notes
political science




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleopatra Shabazz on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 -001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by David Darmofal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 2 Five Sectors of Colonial Society 1. New England merchants 2. Southern Planters 3. Royalists 4. Shopkeepers, artisans, laborers 5. Small farmers British Taxes Become a Major Problem  British government was dealing with debts and numerous financial problems beginning in the 1750s.  British crown felt that funding the colonies during French and Indian war caused the debt  Began taxing the colonists to pay some of the costs   Colonists were angry because stamps and commercial goods (sugar and molasses) were being taxed Colonists Result to Collective Action  Colonists came together in a series of both provocative and counter­acts that preluded the Declaration of Independence o Boston Tea Party (1773) o First Continental Congress (1774) o Lexington and Concord (1775) o Second Continental Congress (1776) Declaration of Independence     “All men are created equal”     Does not create a government  Simply states that a government is not legitimate without the consent of the governed  The people have the right to revolt when a government no longer serves the needs of the people Revolutionary War  War of Independence  Colonists vs British soldiers (Native Americans fought on both sides)  Colonists won because the British were tired of fighting a long, bloody, expensive war Articles of Confederation  First American Constitution  Primary concern was limiting the powers of the central government  Did not have an executive branch because it was not intended to be a powerful government     America = 13 sovereign states + weak central government o No standing army o Weak executive o No ability to tax and spend o Shays’ Rebellion  Farmers rebellion vs State of Massachusetts  Wanted to prevent foreclosures on debt­ridden land Constitutional Convention (1787)  Great Compromise o House of Representatives: based on state population o Senate: each state has equal vote (regardless of size)  Three­Fifths Compromise o 5 slaves = 3 people o Slaves can’t vote, but help boost representation in slave states Constitution  Article 1: Legislative Branch  Bicameralism: divides legislative assembly into two chambers (houses)  Expressed Powers: powers granted to the government  Necessary and Proper Clause: gives national government the power and strength to make laws (elastic clause)  Article 2: Executive Branch  Independent, strong and more energetic executive (compared to the Articles of Confederation)     President = commander­in­chief + chief executive + chief diplomat o Can nominate executive and judicial officials o Can grant reprieves and pardons  Article 3: Judicial Branch Supreme Court and federal courts established by congress  Justices and Judges o Nominated by president o Confirmed by Senate o Lifetime terms     Judicial Review is not explicitly provided o (Power of courts to declare legislative and executive actions invalid or unconstitutional)  Article 4: National Unity  Full Faith and Credit Clause:  states must respect “public acts, records, and judicial proceedings” of every other state  Privileges and Immunities Clause: prevents states from discriminating citizens from another state  Article 5: Amending the Constitution  1 .     Pass House and Senate by 2/3 vote, ratified by legislative votes of ¾ states  2. Pass House and Senate by 2/3 vote, ratified by conventions of ¾ states votes 3. Pass national convention in response to petitions by 2/3 states, ratified by legislative votes of ¾ states 4. Pass national convention in response to petitions by 2/3 states, ratified by conventions of ¾ states  Article 6: National Power  Supremacy Clause: federal laws are greater than state laws  Article 7: Ratification  Constitution can only be ratified by majority vote of 9 states (out of 13) The Power of the National Government is Limited  Separation of Powers: governmental power is divided among several institutions  Federalism: power is divided between central and regional governments  Bill of Rights: people are ensure certain rights and liberties that are stated in the first 10 amendments Federalists  Leaders: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Washington  Supporters: property owners, creditors, merchants     Strong, national government  Ratification is good  Fears      Excessive democracy is dangerous o Can lead to the tyranny of the majority Antifederalists  Leaders: Patrick Henry, George Mason, Elbridge Gerry, George Clinton  Supporters: small farmers, frontiersman, debtors, shopkeepers     More state control  Ratification is bad  Fears o Government will have too much power over the people Federalist 10 th  10  essay written in the Federalists Papers by James Madison  Instability and factionalism are the key problems of democracy  Factionalism: the act of creating subgroups within a large group that has an opposing opinion, causing division of opinions within the group  Strive to eliminate faction by filtering through public opinions The Amendments to the Constitution  Bill of Rights 1. Freedom of speech, religion and press, right to petition and assembly 2. Citizens can bear arms 3. Citizens do not have to quarter soldiers during peacetime 4. Search and seizure must be reasonable 5. Right to due process (fair treatment of judicial system), no double jeopardy 6. Fair, speedy trial 7. Right to jury trial (criminal cases) 8. No excessive bail or cruel, unusual punishment 9. Unenumerated Rights: legal rights that are not explicitly stated 10. Power of the State  Other Amendments  11 .    Citizens can sue a sta e  12 .    President and Vice­President are placed on separate ballots   13 .    Slavery is ill gal 14.  Freed slaves   have the   right to vote   15 .    Citizens of any race can vot   16 .     Federal Income Tax   17 .    Senators can be electe  18. Prohibition (Alcohol)  19 .    Women can vote   20 .    Shorted tthe frame between outgoing and incoming presidents  21. Repealed 18  Amendment  22 .    President is limited to two terms   23 .    District of Columbia can vote   24 .    No more poll t x  25 .    Outlines protocol for presidential disability, vacancy or inability   26 .    Citizens 18+ can vot   27 .    Congressional salaries can only be changed after the election  Created more voters Strengthened relationship between elected offices and voters Affected the power of the government “The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions”  Abraham Lincoln  Obey the law  Citizens do not have to tolerate any violation of the law  Citizens are encouraged to work to change unjust laws  However, citizens must obey the law while it is still being enforced “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”  Martin Luther King, Jr.  Civil disobedience is necessary when facing unjust, immoral laws  Citizens have a moral duty to break these laws  Citizens must be willing to accept the consequences of their actions in order to bring awareness to the community.


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