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1211 GEOL Notes for Midterm

by: Brendon Hermosillo

1211 GEOL Notes for Midterm GEOL 1211

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > GEOL 1211 > 1211 GEOL Notes for Midterm
Brendon Hermosillo
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About this Document

Notes go over everything on the test remember specific numbers
Principles of Earth Sciences - 18649
Hector Gonzalez-Huizar
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brendon Hermosillo on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1211 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Hector Gonzalez-Huizar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
The Milky Way ­ Is a Spiral Galaxy ­ Located at the edge of the galaxy ­ The Universe, The Local Super Cluster, Local cluster, Milky Way, Solar System, Earth is the outward to inward ­ A light year equals 9x10^12 equals 9 trillion km ­ Milky Way is 100,00 light years wide ­ Humans have traveled about .002 light years from earth Earth ­ Is 4.6 billion years old ­ First Hominids existed for 2 million years ­ Dinosaurs existed 65­230 million years How we explore outer space and earths surfaces ­ Telescopes ­ Observations  ­ Using different frequencies to map out areas of space The earth’s interior  ­ Exploring through caves and digging holes in the earth ­ We have only gone 12 km while the earth is 6378 km  ­ Through seismic tomography you can study the interior of earth The study of Earth ­ Is 6378 km in radius ­ About 4.6 billion years old Geology ­ Solving environmental problems ­ El Paso is located in the Northern section of the Chihuahua Desert ­ Predicting natural disasters  ­ Discovering the earth Plate Tectonics ­ Most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur along the Pacific coast lines (The Pacific  Ring of Fire) ­ Alfred Weger created the theory of continental drift  ­ The friction between the land masses and the sea floor creates earthquakes Continental Drift Theory ­ Pangea super continent  ­ Thought up by Alfred Weger when he noticed South America and Africa had similar  coast lines Evidence for Continental Drift ­ Similarities of rock sequences and mountain ranges ­ Glacial evidence ­ Fossil evidence  ­ Paleomagnetic studies ­ Earths Layer ­ Crust ­ Lithosphere ­ Mantle ­  Asthenosphere ­ Outer Core ­ Inner Core 1) Earth Structures Formation of the Himalayas ­ Is 8,848 meters (29,029ft) above sea level ­ The collision of the two plates caused The Nepal Earthquake with a magnitude of 7.8,  8000 killed  Rock Deformation ­ Applied stress can deform (strain) rocks until they become contorted or fractured ­ Stress is a force ­ Compression causes shortening of rock layers by folding or faulting ­ Tension lengthens rock layers and causes faulting  ­ Sheer stress causes deformation ­ Folds cause folds in the rock layers Earthquakes ­ Largest since 1900 1) Chile 1960 magnitude of 9.5 2) Alaska 1964 magnitude of 9.2 3) Sumatra 2004 magnitude of 9.1 4) Japan 2011 magnitude of 9.0 5) Russia 1952 magnitude of 9.0 ­ Scientists started studying earthquakes around 1900 Earthquakes Most Deaths ­ Haiti magnitude of 7.0, deaths around 366,000 Earthquake zones ­ Occur on the plate boundaries ­ Can occur through the deformation of the plate Deformation ­ Plastically ­ Elastically Seismic waves  ­ An earthquake produces several types of waves ­ Body waves (P and S) and surface waves, P (Primary) waves are faster than S  (Secondary) waves but S waves are stronger ­ S waves shake side to side or up and down, but P waves shake back and forth, and  surface waves is a combo of both almost elliptical ­ S waves travel about 3 to 4 Seismographs ­ Are outdated ­ Records seismic waves Magnitude of earthquakes ­ Mercalli scale measures the total damage done to buildings and structures ­ Richter scale calculates the height of the largest earthquake body wave ­ Moment scale comes from the total amount of movement and the surface area of a fault ­ With each increase in magnitude is is 10 times larger than the last ­ Each increase in magnitude is 32 times greater than the previous in energy


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