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Week 2 Psych Class Notes

by: Brianna Notetaker

Week 2 Psych Class Notes PSYC 1100-W32

Brianna Notetaker
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About this Document

Week of September 8, 2016 class notes
General Psychology I
David Rentler
Class Notes




Popular in General Psychology I

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1100-W32 at University of Connecticut taught by David Rentler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology I in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Psych September 8,2016 Why do Psychology  How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions?  The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do. (definition of psychology) The scientific attitude  The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning), and humility (ability to own up to a mistake) Critical thinking  Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly.  It examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values (political views), evaluates evidence and accesses conclusions. (a lot of research use college psych students – problem doesn’t include everyone only one group of people is used – use critical thinking when evaluating research and studies done) How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?  Psychologist use scientific method Theory – explanation that integrates principals and organizes and predicts behavior and events – example low self-esteem contributes to depression Generalization is just a hypothesis formed from a small experience Can’t rely on our past experiences to make decisions Hypothesis – is a testable prediction often prompted by a theory to enable us to accept reject or revise. Research Observations – research would require us to administer tests to confirm or decline our hypothesis Research Process – Theory – Hypothesis – Research and Observation *cannot generalize* Description Case Study – a technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles great way to form hypothesis that you would test using bigger populations Clinical psychology is very similar to a case study (is language uniquely human?) Survey – a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people Wording effects – wording can change the results of a survey (Q- should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? Not allowed vs forbid) (compound question) Random Sampling – if each members of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. Sample of people need to be varied in all groups of individuals Naturalistic Observation – observing and recording the behavior of induvial in their natural habitat or their daily lives without disrupting them (know being watch it can change behavior) 2 Descriptive Method * case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation describe behavior * Correlation – when one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate Correlation coefficient – statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. Correlation does not mean causation R=+0.37 R= correlation coefficient + or – indications direction or a relationship (positive or negative) 0.37 = indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) closer to 1.00 means a stronger relationship 0.97 is stronger relationship than 0.35 Positive relationship as one goes up the other goes up Negative relationship as one goes up the other goes down SATs have predictive validity Scatterplots – is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) points going up in a line Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) points going down in a line No relationship (0.00) points all over one dot represents 1 person line of best fit is the average 3 as ice cream sales go up murder rates goes up (third variable – summertime) can not say it’s a causation but there is a correlation Experimentation Exploring cause and effect Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulates factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationship Independent variable and Dependent Variable Does my independent variable effect my dependent variable Independent Variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter Evaluating Therapies Double-blind procedure – in evaluating a study patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment Don’t know what group you are in Placebo effect – power of expectations *random assignment* diverse population in each group make the groups look about the same all groups are comparable Experimentation – a summary of steps during experimentation Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life 4 Describing Data- a meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusion. Measures of Central Tendency Mode – most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean – arithmetic average of scores Median – middle score in rank-ordered distribution Skewed distribution most on one side a few outliers on the other Range – difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution Standard Deviation – a computed measure of how much score vary around the mean. 5


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