Week 3 of TV in american society
Week 3 of TV in american society RTV 3405
Popular in TV and American Society
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTV 3405 at University of Florida taught by Robert H. Wells in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see TV and American Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Functions and roles in the TV industry, the Graphic that connects all of the roles in productions (p 18) Creative Team: ● Showrunner: helps manage the production from idea to creation. ● Director ● Screenwriter ● production Challenges in the TV industry: ● Producers have to regularly make new material. ● The production cycles are short. Deficit financing: networks pay licensing fees to production companies to air programs (but these are usually not enough to cover production costs, so production companies usually start in the hole when they make shows). ● In this way, it is the production company that takes most of the risk, minimizing a network’s risk ● Profit for production companies comes from syndication: he sales of broadcasting rights to multiple channels. There are two types of syndications: 1) first run and 2) off network reruns ○ But sometimes, high risk = high profit. ○ Reruns can be very profitable for a show’s producers ■ Seinfeld aired on NBC 19891998 ● Columbia TriStar started syndicating the show in 1994 ● 1998: TBS paid 120M to 180M for all 180 episodes ● 2013: generated more than 3.1B since it last aired on NBC ● Hulu purchased streaming rights for 180M in 2015 The networks are still the distributors/most powerful; they have a large amount of local affiliated channels. These are how networks choose where to place shows: (*these are very important definitions*) ● Block scheduling (stacking): back to back scheduling of similar shows ● Cross programming: e xtending a story arc between episodes of two different shows like when Timmy Turner and Jimmy Neutron shared a special. ● Counter programming: p rograms that might attract a different audience than the competition, especially when facing a hit show ● Challenge programming: a hit show is moved into the same time slot when a rival hit show plays ● Hammocking: placing a new or unpopular program in between popular ones ● Tentpoling: placing a popular program between two unpopular ones ● Hotswitching: eliminating ads between shows to avoid channel switching Cable and satellite channels appeal to niche audiences because you can find unique shows. Who does the transmission? ● Broadcast stations ● 19522009 ○ 1) VHF ○ 2) UHF (more affected by interference, created two tiers) ● After 2009: ○ Digitalization Types of Stations: ● Owned and Operated (O&O) ● Network affiliated ● Nonnetwork affiliated Cable systems; protected by municipal franchise rights to an area: covers cable installation costs (it’s incredibly expensive), but at the same time prevents competition ● Multiple system operators control the market in an oligopoly: higher prices for consumers ● Cable must carry federal regulation: cable services must carry local broadcast programs which helped UHF stations ● Retransmission consent: ○ Broadcast stations waive their must carry protection to charge a subscription fee to cable ○ If a monetary amount is not agreed upon, station may not be carried ○ Cable often needs popular network programming, incl local content, so is willing to pay. ● Comcast is number one cable company Other forms of transmission exist Media companies can be Vertically or Horizontally integrated, or both ● All stages of business vs one company owns all types of media. Regulation: ● 1960s had very little ● 1970s FCC passes anticoncentration measure ● 1980s: not as much concern about media ownership ○ Fox network enters market in 86 ● 1990s: FinSyn repealed by Telecommunications Act of 96 ○ More antitrust regulations lifted ● Networks have not lost viewers, but the medium has changed How to create a hit show? ● Television industry doesn't know ● Producers often rely on formulas How to make your own program. Steps: Pilot success rates: ● Testing is speculative and inexact ● Balance between commercial appeal and new creative content How to make your own program in the convergence age ● Kickstarter ● Youtube channels ● Jerry Seinfeld’s comedians in a car getting coffee Participatory Audiences ● Spoiling Survivor: a collective intelligence experience ● TV: mass communication to participatory medium ● TV producer’s response to participatory audiences: more complex narratives Viewer: an individual Audience: categorical grouping Four models of how audiences are represented (Dennis McQuail) hint: the representations increase in diversity over time. 1. Unitary Model 50s80s: s ingle mass audience representing general public 2. Pluralism model: diverse audience demands shape more diverse programs that somewhat overlap 3. The coreperiphery model: m ost audiences consume core channels, others on the periphery consume more diverse channels 4. Breakup pattern model: market is saturated, each channel/program serves a specific niche, no overlapping Spoiling Survivor: How did it happen? Through collective intelligence ● Motivations for spoiling: audience members wanted to be the first to know and to be the one to piece it together ● What did the fans use to piece information together? ○ The found out where it was filmed so they can go see, interviewed people. ● How the fans constructed collective intelligence: internet, moderators on the discussion boards. ● Who was involved: “professional spoilers” who went to the sites, interviewed people, revealed information etc. ● Other examples of “spoiling” tv shows: Big Brother 24 hour surveillance, olympics, other languages, sports broadcasting on phones, fans and companies, Twin Peaks TV as Mass Communication: ● Then: An individual/group sends a message (program/show/announcement) through a channel to a large anonymous, heterogeneous population with almost no medium for feedback ● Now: TV is interactive; it’s a participatory media with a feedback cycle and the message perhaps adaps with the interaction Nielsen also measures social content ratings on social media Digitalization and culture made TV participatory TV producer’s reaction to participatory audiences is increasingly complex narratives ● Complex narratives were originally avoided by producers because programs were rerun on other networks and were therefore out of show order. (Think Law and Order, SVU: there is a story line in the backdrop of the detective’s lives but you don’t need to continually watch the show in order to understand what happens in each episode). ○ Additionally, uncertain features of shows meant not knowing when the show will end. ● Facilitations of complex narratives: ○ Technology (VCR, DVR), Internet forums ○ Industry: Increased competition, attracting audiences that didn’t watch tv ○ Society and Culture: more engaged audiences, more diverse audiences, video games ● Definition of omplex narratives : m are expected to not just remember but fill in unspoken plot holes, some narratives even require the audience to work collaboratively (collective intelligence) Exchanging Audiences (advertising) Networks sell us (the audiences) to advertisers. Commercial radio ● 1922: toll broadcasting: selling time on airwaves for commercials ● Single sponsorship ads emerged. They were entertaining like shows. Single sponsor model carried to TV ● Research was starting to show that brand recognition through TV was strong ● Problem: less control over programs, scheduling (networks), cost of programs rises (for advertisers) ● Magazine concept sponsorship 1950s program, advertisements must compete for attention, they became more aggressive and sensational Advertising: branding, taxdeductible business expense ● Sponsors purchase unknown asset ● 1849 (also 1834), white male most desired audience: scarcity principle (most tv viewers/shoppers were/are women) ● Affects tv content. Cost per thousand (CPM) ● Advertisement unit cost of reaching 1000 viewers ● Used to compare the cost effectiveness of different media vehicles print, tv, radio, etc ● Media vehicle with the lowest cpm is generally the most efficient bc it req less money to reach 1,000 audience mems ● CPM=(cost of a media program ad) / (size of the media program’s audience) X 1000 ○ (Know how to calculate this, bring a calculator to the exam!) Problem with measure exposures: ● Sometimes people don’t watch the tv when it’s on ● There are multiple viewers in each home ● Doesn’t measure interactions: aka media that has been created in relation to it Infomercials and home shopping network: Product integration (placement) ● 80% of television programs contain product placement. Why? ○ Less intrusive than ads ○ Can’t be skipped like commercials ○ Cheaper for advertisers ○ Audience perceive it as celebrity endorsements ○ Adds realism to the show and products ○ Problem: companies relinquish their creative control of how the product is presented to the show’s producers and actors. ○ Common strategies of advertisements: ● Hard sell (product knowledge) communicate hard info ○ Often used by new product categories or new brand, used to distinguish a product in a saturated market (highlight competitive advantage) ● Soft sel appeals to emotions to build brand image. ○ Used by est brands/products ○ Project celeb lifestyle ○ Seek to be viral ○ Surprise element is important ■ Coke, bud, microsoft ● AntiADS: explicitly go against traditional ads ○ Address intelligent audiences ○ Critical to build brand image ○ Parody of established ads ■ We watched, #likeagirl, Ikea bookbook in class ● Creating demand: highlight problems in our lives and their product is the solution (often exaggerate problems, promote consumption as the cure) Television Ratings and Shares ● Rating: (Households tuned into a given program) / (all households with tv) X 100 ● Share: (households tuned into a given program) / (all households tuned into TV at that time) X 100 ○ Ratings are used to calculate the audience member in CPM (cost/audience) x 100 ● Nielsen does the ratings in the US. They go to the media organizations that sell media time, organizations that buy media time, and to advertisers. ○ Nielsen Media Research (how they get ratings): ■ Set top meters: devices attached to people's homes to get data on what people are watching (in 400500 homes) ● Problems: 1) doesn’t account for viewing parties. ■ Diaries: people document what they watch (2M are issued each year and collected during sweeps months: most important months in which tv producers use s tunt castings (celeb guest appearance) t hat are used to boost ratings) ● Problems: 1) The headquarters is in Clearwater, so older people typically fill out these diaries = not an accurate population representation, 2) The diaries are based on people’s first hand records and often inaccurate, and 3) Social desirability bias comes into play (will not admit to watching sex scandal, etc). ■ People meters: device hooked to tv, it has settings for each person in the household (in more than 25,000 households). ● Problems: 1) It overlooks other devices that people watch tv on, 2) People walk out of the room with the TV left on, 3) doesn’t account for viewing parties, and 4) might skew the representation of the US population (Nielsen has been accused of not going into bad neighborhoods). ■ Portable people meter: Continuous tracking device that attaches to people’s belts and picks up signals from multiple media sources. It’s personal in that it ties media consumption details with personal demographic information ■ Social media: Nielsen started tracking twitter, youtube, and recently facebook. ■ Regardless of problems, it’s still the industry standard, and a third party watches Nielsen. ● Video about ratings: uses statistical sampling and pays households a small stipend. Numbers typically represent a share in total viewers. 1.0 = 1% of all viewers in the US tuned in. ○ Ages 1824 is the most important age group for advertisers. ○ People use this for which shows to keep/cancel ○ Viewing habits are fragmenting with the inventions of netflix, dvr, etc ● Hulu and Netflix ○ Hulu is measured by ComScore, Nielsen, and Quantcast ○ Netflix doesn’t release viewership data. SERVING THE PUBLIC INTEREST FCC regulates broadcasting 1) to license the spectrum, 2) provide/incentives public good, and to protect copyright. ● FCC decides on whether to grant, renew or deny a license based on the P ICAN Standard: if the station serves the public interest, convenience and necessity. ○ What is public interest? ■ Britain: a public good tbd by the policymakers ■ BBC: educating and informing democratic participation, cultural enrichment, and diversity in programing (interest for minorities). ■ US: that which interest the public ● Commercial broadcasters, listeners, viewers define their own best interests. ● Criticism of this model by FCC’s own chair: 1) “Vast wasteland” speech by Newton Minow, he argues for broadcasters to address public needs. “When television is bad, nothing is worse... Is there one person in this room who can claim that Broadcasting can’t do better?... Never have so few owed so much to so many.” 2) Calls broadcasters to take up public responsibility ● The FCC cannot censor content, and this is in order to protect free speech, however it does regulate some content: ○ Obscenity: sexual content appealing solely for prurient interest with no legit social value. Broadcasters can be prosecuted for obscenity, but not for speech with obscene content. ○ Indecency: material that depicts/describes in terms patently offensive as measured by contemp comm standards for broadcast medium, sexual or excretory organs or activities ■ Safe Harbor from 10 pm to 6 am: when programs with adult content can air without penalties from FCC, material can be indecent but not obscene. ○ Profanity: language so grossly offensive to the members of the public who actually hear it as to amount to a nuisance: “fuck, sex, explicit discussion of sex.” Networks often selfcensor to avoid public outcry. ● Reactive rather than the police: they look at complaints that people file. ● Cable tv not regulated for indecency and profanity: cable is primarily a transmission service and the FCC is unsure of their ability to regulate cable content. Public Broadcasting System (PBS) ● ETV frequencies granted in the 1950s to universities Public Access Television ● FCC req that cable systems provide channels in support of noncommercial programming for 3 purposes: PEG 1. Public access 2. E ucational programming 3. Go vernmental service Copyright: it’s in the constitution ● Qualifies for copyright as soon as you write/record it if it’s original work ● Protects content creator's’ ability to: ○ Reproduce the work ○ Distribute copies of the work ○ Perform the work publicly ● Good for the life of the individual author + 70 years ● Public domain: copyright does expire, b fair use allows people to use content under these conditions: ○ Purpose and character of the use ○ Nature of the copyrighted work: zapruder film of kennedy’s assassination ○ Amount used ○ The effect upon work’s value: a textbook meant to be used in the classroom, professors cannot distribute copies of a textbook b/c it affects the market and sales.
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