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Chem 212 chapter 2 sections 1-5

by: Kaylee Friou

Chem 212 chapter 2 sections 1-5 Chem 212

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Chemistry > Chem 212 > Chem 212 chapter 2 sections 1 5
Kaylee Friou
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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Chapter 2 sections 1-5
Survey of Chemistry for Education Majors
Jennifer De Guzman
Class Notes
Math, Chemistry, conversion, weight




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylee Friou on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 212 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jennifer De Guzman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Survey of Chemistry for Education Majors in Chemistry at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 2: Measurement 2.1 Significant Figures A. Accuracy and Precision 1) Accuracy: how close a measured value is to _____ the actual value__. 2) Precision: how close measured values are to _each other (average)_ B. Measured numbers • There will be some _uncertainty_ in where to round off a measured quantity based upon the precision of the measuring instrument. • The level of uncertainty is reported by using Significant Figures_ • The _more_ Significant Figures reported, the _more certain_ the measurement. C. Significant Figures (SF)   1  1) A number is Significant if it is: a) Not zero 65.2 g 255.245 g (3 sf) (6 sf) b) a zero between nonzero digits 29.05 1.0087 (4 sf) (5 sf) c) A zero at the end of a decimal 3.7500 620.0 (5 sf) (4 sf) 2) A number is NOT Significant if it is: a) A zero at the beginning of a decimal 0.000234 0.520 (3 sf) (3 sf) b) A zero at the end of a nondecimal number 140 3000 (2 sf) (1 sf) D. Rounding Off Using Standard Rounding Rules Example:   2  Write 14.234 with only 2 SF 14 Write 135500.0 with only 3 SF 136000 E. Calculations with Significant Figures (SF) - the level of _uncertainty_ must be _maintained_ in the answer. 1) Multiplying and Dividing – the fewest number of SF are preserved 5.642 x 2.03 = 11.45326 (4 sf) (3 sf) 11.5 (3 sf) 0.33 ÷ 0.111 = 2.972972973 (2 sf) (3 sf) 3.0 (2 sf) 2) Adding and Subtracting – the fewest number of Decimal places 2.003 + 1 = 3.003 (3 dp) (0 dp) 3   3  16.88821 - 4.23 = 12.65821 (5 dp) (2 dp) 12.66 (2 dp) 3) Multistep – perform each step to solve the problem, using SF rules as you go (3.4 x 2.22) + 0.1 = (2 sf) (3 sf) 7.548 + 0.1 = 7.5 + 0.1 = 7.6 (1 dp) (1 dp) 2.2 Scientific Notation A. Putting Numbers into Scientific Notation 8000000 can be written as 8 x 10^6 0.00000008 can be written as 8 x 10^-6 Your calculator can do this for you: • The SCI function puts numbers into Scientific Notation • The FLO function returns to normal 6 8 x 10 To type this number in your calculator, type in:   4  Standard Scientific View Notation 0.00009 9 x 10^75 50000000 5 x 10 B. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation 6.02 x 1023 2.3 Measurement Units • A _unit_ tells you what a number means • 3 means anything • __3 eggs, 3 miles, 3 people, 3 mins__ mean specific things • In Chemistry, we use the Système International (SI) unit system which uses the __metric system__ A. Mass: The amount of matter in an object • The unit of mass is the _grams_ • A _kilogram_ is made up of __one thousand grams__ 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams 1 kg = 1,000 g   5  • One gram_ can be sliced in to one thousand milligrams_ 1 gram = 1,000 milligrams 1 g = 1,000 mg • Mass is not the same as _weight_ • The _weight_ of an object is it’s mass times the pull of _gravity_ • An object’s _weight changes on different planets • An object’s _mass__ remains the same on different planets B. Length • The unit of length is the _meter (m)__ • Like the gram, there can be _kilometers (km)_ and _millimeters (mm)_ 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters 1 km = 1,000 m 1 meter = 1,000 millimeters 1m = 1,000 mm • The _centimeter_ is commonly used: 1 meter = 100 centimeters 1m = 100 cm   6  • The relationship to the English System is: 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters 1 in = 2.54 cm C. Volume: The amount of space an object occupies • The unit of volume is the liter (L)_ 1 Kiloliter = 1000 liters 1 KL = 1000 L 1 Liter = 1000 milliliters 1 L= 1000 mL 1 liter = 100 centiliters 1 L = 100 cL • Common English units: 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 quart = 2 pints 1 pint = 2 cups 2.4 Metric System Relationships: A. Metric System Relationships • These work for any Metric System _____________ (show below using the gram as the base unit). 1 gram = 1,000,000,000 nanograms (ng) 1 gram = 1,000,000 micrograms (µg) 1 gram = 1,000 milligrams (mg) 1 gram = 100 centigrams (cg) 1 gram = 10 decigrams (dg)   7  1 Decagram (Dg) = 10 grams 1 Hectagram (Hg) = 100 grams 1 Kilogram (Kg) = 1,000 grams 1 Megagram (Mg) = 1,000,000 grams 1 Gigagram (Gg) = 1,000,000,000 grams B. Significant Figures in Metric System Relationships • These relationships are _exact • There is no uncertainty_, so we don’t count them for SF_. •  1 dozen eggs = 12 eggs •  1000 mL =1 L • All relationships we have learned so far are exact _relationships_. 2.5 Temperature Units Temperature: a measure of how _Hot or cold __ an object is. Temperature Scale Temp. H O 2oils Temp. H O2 Freezes Fahrenheit ( F) 212 F 32 F Celcius ( C) 100 C 0 C Kelvin (K) 373 K 273 K   8    9 


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