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Bio 304 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Loreal Williams

Bio 304 Chapter 1 Notes Bio 304

Marketplace > Hampton University > Biology > Bio 304 > Bio 304 Chapter 1 Notes
Loreal Williams
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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from the first 3 classes when chapter 1 was discussed.
Dr. Ero-Tolliver
Class Notes
history, Of, Microbiology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Loreal Williams on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 304 at Hampton University taught by Dr. Ero-Tolliver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Hampton University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
History ofMicrobiology Chapter 1 (1) Early years of Microbiology  Antoni van Leuwenhoek  Made and used simple microscopes  Examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi, algae and single-celled protozoa (animalcules) o Animalcules then called microorganisms, now called microbes  Carolus Linnaeus  Developed taxons for naming plants and animals, and grouping similar organisms together (Kingdom, Class, Order, Family, Genera, Species) o Now grouped into: a. Bacteria (prokaryotes) b. Archaea (prokaryotes) c. Fungi d. Protozoa e. Algae f. Small multicellular animals  Bacteria and Archaea  Prokaryotic (lack nuclei) – DNA is not surrounded by nucleus  Asexual reproduction  Found everywhere w/sufficient moisture (basically in any environment)  Some can move (have flagella)  Bacterial cell walls have peptidoglycan; some have no cell walls  Fungi  Eukaryotic (have membrane-bound nuclei)  Obtain food from other organisms (saprophytes: decomposers that feed on dead organic compound)  Have cell walls  2 types: o Molds: multicellular; sexual and asexual reproduction o Yeasts: unicellular; asexual reproduction  Protozoa  Single-celled eukaryotes found in water or in animal hosts (parasite)  Most asexual; some sexual  Most capable of locomotion by: o Pseudopods (amoeba produces this for phagocytosis) o Cilia o Flagella  Algae  Eukaryotic (multi or unicellular)  Photosynthetic and categorized on basis of pigmentation (red, green or yellow) and composition of cell wall (2) Golden Age of Microbiology  3 Questions that experiments of this age surrounded:  Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible?  What causes fermentation?  What causes diseases?  How can we prevent infection and diseases?  Some philosophers and scientists of the past thought living things arose from:  Asexual reproduction  Sexual reproduction  Nonliving matter  Aristotle proposed spontaneous generation  Redi disproved it with meat exposure experiment  Spallzani proposed and conducted an experiment to say that microbials do not spontaneously generate, disproving Needham’s beef gravy experiment (believed in microbial spontaneous generation)  Concluded that Needham had errors in his experiment o Microbes exist in air and can contaminate experiments o Spontaneous generation does not occur  Pasteur investigated spontaneous generation with swan-neck flask experiment  Pasteurization: cutting down # of bacteria in a liquid by boiling it  Debate of spontaneous generation allowed for the development of the scientific method  Observation Question Hypothesis (unproven answer to question) ExperimentsResults support or reject hypothesis Theory/Law Rejection or Modification  What Causes Fermentation? (Pasteur)  Some believed air, others believed living organisms o Lined to spontaneous generation debate  Pasteur proved that yeast ferments grape juice into alcohol using scientific method with 4 different hypotheses o Spontaneous fermentation occurs (flask sealed but no alcohol produced) o Flask remained open to air w/curved neck (no alcohol produced) o Bacteria ferment juice into alcohol (bacteria sealed w/juice; no alcohol produced but acids were) o Yeast ferments juice into alcohol (yeast sealed w/juice; alcohol produced)  What Causes Disease?  Some thought the various chemicals in the air caused disease  Pasteur developed germ theory of disease  Robert Koch studied disease causation (etiology) o Anthrax o Examined colonies of microorganisms  Koch Experiments: o Simple staining techniques o First photomicrograph of bacteria o First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue o Use of steam to sterilize media (free of any living thing) o Techniques to transfer bacteria (associate particular w/one disease) o Bacteria as distinct species  Koch Postulates: to incriminate an agent in disease o Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host (shows that they are living things) o * Does not fit all diseases because not all diseases are caused by living things; some by chemicals or surroundings (i.e. Cancer)  How to Prevent Infection and Disease?  Ignaz Semmelweis required med students to wash their hands in chlorinated lime water o Led to higher patient survival rates  Joseph Lister advanced antiseptic techniques in healthcare settings  Edward Jenner developed smallpox vaccine, showcasing vaccine validity o Began the field of immunology  Paul Ehrlich tried to identify “magic bullets” (targeted bacteria) to destroy pathogens but not harm humans o Began the field of chemotherapy  Florence Nightingale: Nursing and antiseptic techniques (during war)  * At least 16 of the many scientific disciplines and applications arose in the Golden Age of Microbiology by 10 scientists (3) The Modern Age of Microbiology  Genes and how they work  Genetics: scientific study of inheritance  Microbial genetics o Avery MacLeod and McCarthy determined that genes are contained in molecules of DNA o Beadle and Tatum established that a gene’s activity is related to protein dunction o Explained translation of genetic info to protein o Investigated rates and mechanisms of genetic mutation o Determined how cells control genetic expression  Molecular biology: explains cell at molecular level o Pauling proposed that gene sequences could: a. Explain evolutionary relationships and processes b. Establish taxonomic categories to reflect the relations c. Identify existence of microbes yet to be cultured o Carl Woese determined cells belong to domains: Bacteria, Archaea or Eukarya using molecular bio knowledge  Recombinant DNA technology: 2 or more types of DNA joined together o Genes in various places manipulated for practical applications o Production of human blood-clotting actor by E. coli to aid hemophiliacs  Gene therapy o Inserting a missing gene/reparation of one into host cell in human  What role do microbes play in the environment?  Bioremediation uses living bacteria, fungi and algae to detoxify polluted environments (like when there is an oil spill)  Recycling of chemicals such as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur  Most microbes in environment are not pathogenic


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