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Funcational Anatomy

by: Ixchel Buelna

Funcational Anatomy KIN 345

Ixchel Buelna
California State University, Northridge
GPA 3.16

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About this Document

Review of movement analysis, planes of motion, axes, and terminology
Dr. Vadim Zaika
Class Notes
anatomy, movement, Kinesiology, Biomechanics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ixchel Buelna on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 345 at California State University, Northridge taught by Dr. Vadim Zaika in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Biomechanics in Kinesiology at California State University, Northridge.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
KIN 345 – WEEK 2 Functional anatomy review  Biomechanics - study of structure and function, by applying law of mechanics (physics) o Concerned with biological systems o Musculoskeletal system  Joints o Synarthrosis - permit no movement (sutures of skull) o Ampiarthrosis - permit slight movement (intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis)  Allow for very limited ROM o Diarthrosis - allow for greatest ROM (knees, shoulder) o Structural  Fibrous (made of collagen fibers)  Sutures of the skull  Cartilaginous (made of bands of cartilage that bind bones together)  Costal cartilage  Pubis symphysis  Synovial (have fluid-filled space between smooth cartilage pads at the end of articulating bones  Most common  Reduces friction  Absorb shock  Synovial membrane produces synovial fluid  Produces lubricant  Gliding (planar) joint  Permits sliding between bones  ROM limited  Doesn't allow for rotation  Has no axis of rotation  Intertarsal, intercarpal joints  Condyloid (ellipsoid) joint  Movement in two planes (biplanar)  Unstable  metacarpal  Saddle  One bone sits on another as a saddle sits on a horse  Biplanar and biaxial  Relatively stable  CMC of thumb  Hinge  Extends and flexes - angular motion about a fixed axis  Only allows for uniplanar movement, uniaxial  Relatively stable  Elbow and knee (modified knee during flexed, as it allows for some rotation)  Pivot  Rotation of longitudinal axis  RU  Uniaxial  Ball and Socket  Rounded end of one bone is housed in a depression of another  Triplanar, triaxial  Great ROM  Hip, shoulder (prone to injury, rotator cuff keeps joint in place)  Greater mobility = less stability  Anatomical position o Starting position for all body movements o All joints at 0 degrees o ROM - amount of movement available at a joint in a given direction  Varies for a particular joint && for people  Directional terminology o …  Joint movement terminology o Flexion - decrease the angle by bringing bones together o Extension - increasing joint angle by moving bones apart o Lateral flexion - abduction of the spine (sideways bending of the vertebral column; moving away from midline) o Reduction - return of the spinal column back to the anatomical position from lateral flexion (adduction of spine) o Abduction - lateral movement, taking away from the body (midline) in frontal plane o Adduction - medial movement toward the body (midline); adding to the body  Executed through the frontal plane o Horizontal (transverse; horizontal extension) abduction - movement in horizontal (transverse) plane away from midline o Horizontal (transverse; horizontal flexion) adduction - movement in horizontal (transverse) plane toward midline o Diagonal abduction - movement of a limb through a diagonal (oblique) plane away from midline  Most movements done in this way o Diagonal adduction - movement of a limb though a diagonal (oblique) plane toward and/or across midline o Rotation - left/right movement  Used for movement of the axial skeleton around longitudinal axis only o Internal (medial) rotation (inward rotation)- rotary movement of a bone around longitudinal axis toward midline o External (lateral) rotation (outward rotation) - rotary movement of a bone around longitudinal axis away from midline o Hip lateral (external) rotation o Circumduction - circular movement of a limb that defines an arc or describes a cone  Circumflexion  Combination of … o Protraction - anterior movement away from midline toward the front of the body  Scapula o Retraction - posterior movement back toward the midline  Scapula o Elevation - superior upward movement  Closing mouth, shrugging shoulders o Depression - inferior downward movement  Opening mouth, dropping the shoulders o Pronation o Supination o Palmar flexion - flexion movement of wrist o Palmar extension - extension movement of wrist with posterior (dorsal) side of hand o Ulnar deviation (adduction of wrist and hand) - little finger move closer to the ulna o Radial deviation (abduction of wrist and hand) - thumb moves closer to the radius o Dorsiflexion - movement of ankle that results in top of the foot moving toward anterior tibia o Plantar flexion - move away from anterior tibia bone o Eversion - turning sole of foot outward or laterally o Inversion - turning sole of foot inward or medially  Scapular movement o Scapulohumeral rhythm  GH joint movement coordinates with scapular motion  30 degrees of abduction  Every 2 degrees of humeral abduction is accompanied by 1 degree of  Upward rotation -  Downward rotation - inferior angle moves medially and downward  Elevation - superior movement  Depression - inferior movement  Protraction - moving away from midline (abduction)  Retraction - moving toward midline (adduction)  Anatomical planes and axes of rotation o Frontal (front and back) - coronal, anterior and posterior segments  Abduction and adduction movements most common o Sagittal (left and right) - medial - equal, bilateral segments  Flexion and extension movements o Transverse (upper and lower) - horizontal, superior and inferior segments  Rotation (axial or appendicular) movements o Other movements - oblique or diagonal plane o Planes - imaginary 2D surface through which a limb or body segment is moved  Can change when a body segment is moved away from an anatomical position (*PLANES COME WITH YOU*)  Fundamental position o Like anatomical but palms face the body  Anatomical axes (axes of rotation = AOR) o Imaginary line about which joint rotation occurs o Always perpendicular to the plane of motion o Longitudinal (polar, vertical) - north & south  Has a transverse plane o Medio-lateral (horizontal, frontal, lateral, bilateral)  Sagittal plane o Antero-postero (sagittal)  Frontal plane o Can change when a body segment is moved away from an anatomical position


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