Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes CCJ 4450
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Sharpnack on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Leadership and Management in Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Florida Gulf Coast University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 3: Leadership, The Integrative Variable Situational: factors that influence our perspective of what constituted viable leadership. Authority: a commodity that can be dispensed by those in positions of power. Leadership related definitions: 1. Influence: to cause some behavior in another human being without the use of authority or physical force. 2. Power: the ability of a leader to influence other human beings in such a way as to produce a particular behavior. 3. Authority: legitimate power vested in some person for a specific purpose. 4. Reciprocal Response: mutual influence between parties to a behavioral transaction. 5. Zone of Acceptance: the parameters within which followers are inclined to do willingly what is ask of them by their leaders Autocratic: absolute control in police departments slowly being displaced. Leadership: derived from an archaic term meaning “to act/carry out”. Elements: 1. Initiation by a leader. 2. Execution by followers. Managerial leaders carry out the following: 1. Formulate and refine the department’s mission, goals, and objectives. 2. Fulfill the department’s mission through goaloriented and proactive management. 3. Motivate police personnel to invest time, energy, effort, and expertise when engaged in job related activities. 4. Make police work a fundamentally rewarding and productive profession. 5. Set a moral, ethical, and professional tone for the organization. 6. Use power and authority to help employees to become more efficient, effective, and productive. 7. Create a working environment in which police officers willingly accomplish tasks. 8. Reward people as a matter of continuous and constant practice. 9. Maximize input from every level of the organization. 10. Above all communicate constantly and with effectiveness. TaskOriented Needs: work centered and directly related to defining goals, making policy, building programs, establishing progress, and creating organizations based on the efficient division of labor. PeopleOriented Needs: employee centered and related to improving interpersonal relations, facilitating communications, motivating personnel, providing support, generating morale through meaningful participation, and resolving destructive conflict. Major knowledge areas and leadership skills associated with good management: Knowledge Areas Leadership Skills 1. Organization theory: work flow 1. Conceptual skills 2. Industrial engineering: job 2. Human skills 3. Behavioral science: attitudes 3. Technical skills Conceptual Skills: used to organize and integrate experience; involve the ability to comprehend and ascribe meaning to bits and piece of information (data) as they are converted into comprehensive thought. Human Skills: aspects of behavior and/or personality that influences the individual’s ability to interact in a positive way with other persons in the organization; tolerance for ambiguity, empathetic understanding, and interpersonal communication skills. Technical Skills: utilized by police personnel vary depending on the level they have attained within the organization; represents specialized knowledge, analytical ability related to the specialty, and competence in the use of those tools and techniques associated with police work. Conceptual Approach: used to study leadership are ordinarily grouped into universal theories and situational theories. Universal Theories: search for an explanation of leadership unrelated to follower behavior or social environment within which it develops. Situational Theories: place undue emphasis on contingency variables in an effort to explain the emergence of leaders/leadership in particular set of circumstances. Components in effective management leadership: 1. Congruent leader style. 2. Meaningful participation. 3. Peopleoriented approach. 4. Positive personal traits. Trait Theory: on of the earliest approaches used to study leadership, popular until mid1950’s, based on the concept that good leaders always have certain physical, mental, and character traits. There is an implicit assumption that one’s ability to lead develops concurrently with the personality during the formative years of childhood. Leaders differ from followers with respect to several specific key traits. Confident that adequate leadership could be obtained through: 1. Researchers study good leaders and compare them to nonleaders to determine special traits in leaders. 2. Police departments identify officers with the special traits and promote them to managerial positions. Ralph C. Davis’ traits required for executive success: Intelligence Personality Experience Knowledge of human behavior Originality Courage Receptiveness Tenacity Teaching ability Sense of justice and fair play Cecil Goode’s essential traits for successful leadership in complex organizations: Leaders… are more intelligent that the average follower. … wellrounded persons in terms of knowledge, interests, and aptitudes. … have an unusual flair for language, speak/ write intelligently, persuasively & understandably. … are physically, mentally, and emotionally mature. … have a powerful inner drive that compels them to strive for accomplishment. … are fully aware of the need for cooperative effort in order to accomplish tasks and get things done and practice effective human skills. … rely on their conceptual skills more than on their technical skills. Ralph M. Stogdill’s effective leader traits: 1. Strong need to assume responsibility and complete tasks. 2. Vitality and perseverance in pursuit of goals. 3. Inventiveness in problem solving. 4. Drive to exercise initiative in social situations. 5. Selfassurance and sense of personal individuality. 6. Willingness to accept consequences for their actions. 7. Skills in coping with interpersonal stress. 8. Patience when dealing with uncertainty and aggravation. 9. Skills to influence the behavior of other people. 10. Ability to organize a cohesive group. Leadership Style Theories: 1. Autocratic Leadership: power oriented; leaders prefer to make decisions and give orders rather than to invite group participation. 2. Democratic Leadership: people oriented; emphasis on participation and collaboration. 3. Laissezfaire Leadership: handsoff approach to management in complex organizations; leader is actually nonleader who acts as an information center and exercises almost no control. Initiating Structure: measured by behavioral items such as planning, coordinating, monitoring, evaluating, directing, and problem solving. Managerial Grid: identifies five normative leadership styles based on the relationship between concern for production and concern for people. 1. Impoverished Management: employees left alone, managers exert minimum effort, no conflict between production goals and needs of subordinates, little expected of managers, laissezfaire management. 2. TaskOriented Management: leader exhibits strong interest in productivity and no concern for employee needs/morale, proverbal taskmaster, human considerations not allowed to interfere with productivity/efficiency, autocratic management style. 3. Country Club Management: leaders are overly concerned with creating and maintaining a friendly atmosphere, spend time placating employees in an effort to meet human needs, attitudes and feelings of subordinates are only concern, people always come first, low functional concern for productivity, and ritualistic exercise designed to sustain employee’s personal lifestyles. 4. MiddleoftheRoad Management: leaders exhibit concern for production and people, behavior reflects an intermediate level of interest in productivity and modest concern for subordinates, seek to strike a balance between organizational goals and personal needs, very common in modern police work. 5. Team Management: rate high in terms of concern for productivity and personnel, assume there is no conflict between goals of organization and needs of their subordinates, emphasis on meaningful participation, integration of organizational goals and employees needs achieved by involving all personnel in determining the goals, methods, and conditions of work. Proponents of Participation View as an Interaction procedure: Candor & Openness Strong Initiative Conflict Resolution Team Work Delegation Systematic Inquiry Effective Advocacy Twoway Evaluation Paul Whisenand’s diagnosis and evaluation of disparate factors: 1. Managerial Characteristics: behavior in a given situation depends on the forces or personal characteristics of the individual managers. 2. Subordinate Characteristics: managers assess intuitively the personal characteristics and behavioral patterns of others within the work group. 3. Workgroup Structure: groups are an omnipresent feature in modern society and represent a keystone in the structure of all complex criminal justice organizations. 4. Organizational Factors: one of the most crucial yet least understood aspects of a leadership situation is the organization itself. Important considerations relate to the assigned mission, influence base utilized by leaders, department policies, and skills. Contingency Theory: the effectiveness of groups in achieving organizational goals and objectives ultimately depends on the personalities of their leaders as manifest in their leadership styles and the dynamics of the situations in which they and their subordinates find themselves. Managers are likely to find themselves in high, moderate, and lowcontrol situations. Situational Factors: leadermember relations, task structure, position power of the leader, and favorableness of the situation. Least Preferred Coworker (LPC): scale that classifies leadership orientation by measuring the manager’s perceived psychological distance from the least preferred coworker. Situational Control: leadershipmember relationships, task structure, and position power are critical factors of the job. PathGoal Theory: explains how the behavior of the manager influences the motivation and satisfaction of subordinates. Affect the relationship between legitimate goals and appropriate means by: 1. Delegating sufficient authority and assigning tasks. 2. Supporting the efforts of subordinates as they strive to accomplish work goals. 3. Determining the amount and kind of extrinsic rewards to be provided. 4. Recognizing, reinforcing, and rewarding goal attainment. 5. Enhancing subordinate satisfaction, reducing stress in the workplace, and removing the barriers that frustrate goal achievement. PathGoal basic leader behavior systems: 1. Achievementoriented leadership 2. Instrumental leadership 3. Supportive leadership 4. Participative leadership Participatory Management: involves the consults, joins, and delegates styles and is specifically designed to involve employees in the leadership process. They make a sincere effort to get their subordinates involved in the task of creating and maintaining productive work environments. Autocratic control. Satisfy needs related to employee’s selfesteem and reputation. Rooted in humanistic theories. Organizational humanists’ guidelines for enhancing participation: 1. Create an environment in which employees feel they can express their concerns. 2. Propose tentative solutions and encourages officers to improve on them. 3. Make notes in order to ensure that ideas are recorded. 4. Look for positive aspects of suggestions. 5. If concerned about some aspects of a suggestion, work at making them less objectionable. 6. Do not be defensive when listening to a dissenting opinion. 7. Utilize suggestions and deal with expressed concerns. 8. Give people credit for their suggestions and ideas. Rensis Likert scale measuring attitudes and values: System 1 – Exploitive Authoritative: management is seen as having no confidence or trust in its personnel and seldom involves them in any aspect of organizational decisionmaking. System 2 – Benevolent Authoritative: management places some degree of confidence and trust in lowerlevel police personnel, but the organization retains its rigid paramilitary structure. System 3 – Consultative: management exhibits substantial but not total trust between leaders and subordinates. System 4 – Participative Group: leader behavior and managerial practices demonstrate the total trust and confidence that midlevel and executivelevel managers have in their subordinates. Built on supportive relationships, high performance goals, and group decisionmaking and supervision. 1. Establish organizational goals. 2. Improve techniques, procedures, and operations. 3. Evaluate the overall success of the organization in accomplishing its mission, goals, and objectives. Transformational leadership: alters employee relationships with, and views of, the organization. A process that focuses on building commitment and creating working relationships that allow task accomplishment. Leaders utilize intellectual inspiration, inspiring leadership, idealized stimulus, and individualized consideration that enhance commitment. Strives to achieve superior results through: 1. Present charismatic role models. 2. Motivate and inspire. 3. Stimulate innovation and creativity. 4. Stress individual needs for achievement and growth.
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