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Chapter 1

by: bande013
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This is an outline of Chapter 1 of "Earth: Portrait of a Planet" (5th ed). It includes definitions, concept outlines, and diagrams to help visualize ideas. I have included my own answers to the rev...
Class Notes
geography, the big bang theory, universe, stars, planets
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Popular in Ocean, Earth, and Atmospheric Science

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by bande013 on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to OEAS 111N at Old Dominion University taught by JENS F BISCHOF in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LECTURE in Ocean, Earth, and Atmospheric Science at Old Dominion University.

Similar to OEAS 111N at ODU

Popular in Ocean, Earth, and Atmospheric Science


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Date Created: 09/12/16
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The stars appear to move because we on Earth are moving. The planets also appear to move at the same speed for the same reasons. 2. The geocentric model has the Earth sitting at the center of the universe, while the moon, planets, and sun whirl around it in a circular orbit. This is surrounded by a shell of stars. The heliocentric model places the sun at the center of the Universe, and the planets revolve around it. 3. Foucalt’s Pendant uses Newton’s first law of motion (objects in motion stay in motion and objects at rest stay at rest) as proof of the rotation. As the pendant began to swing, Foucalt saw it was perpendicular (at 90 degrees) to Earth’s surface and it rotated around a vertical axis. He then realized that the pendant stayed in the same plane, but the Earth was rotated under it. 4. Eratosthenes used a report that said the Sun lit a well in Alexandria, Egypt precisely at noon. He decided that the Sun’s rays should be perpendicular to Earth at Syene, so they couldn’t be exactly perpendicular at Alexandria, 800km north of Syene. He measured the shadow cast by the well in Alexandria and used geometry to calculate the circumference. 5. Light years are a measure of how far light travels in a year. It’s a measure of distance, not of time. 6. The Doppler Effect describes the way a sound wave changes as its source moves farther away from you. The pitch stays the same as the source moves towards you, but once it passes you, it sounds lower because the wavelength changes between one wave and the next. 7. The red/blue shift is similar to the Doppler Effect. Lower frequency light, or light moving farther away from you, appears redder. By this, we can infer that the red shift of galaxies tells us that they are moving farther away from Earth. 8. The Big Bang is the moment that the singularity (the entire Universe packed into a single point) exploded, about 13.7 billion years ago. The Universe began to expand upward and outward into a bell-type shape. 9. Hydrogen and helium atoms could not form until the universe cooled. After a few seconds, hydrogen atoms formed, and then at about 3 minutes, they could fuse together to form helium atoms. This is called Big Bang nucleosynthesis. 10.Heavier elements form during the life cycle of a star, called stellar nucleosynthesis. This mostly happens at the end of a stars’ life, when it explodes into a ring of gas. Other heavier elements require supernova nucleogenesis, which produces even higher levels of heat. 11.The nebular theory explains how the Solar System formed. First, a swirling nebula collapses into a spinning disk (the protoplanetary disk) with a bulbous center. The sun formed out of this bulb, and planets out of the disk. The disk contains all 92 elements, a mixture of gases, volatile materials, and refractory materials. As the bulb heated up, the frost line (freezing point) of the protoplanetary disk moved outward, and the volatile material close to the bulb evaporated and was pushed out to the edge of the disk. Dusty material was closer to the bulb and icy material farther away. The forces of gravity caused these materials to separate into concentric rings, and then the materials began to clump together into planetesimals. These them formed into protoplanets after attracting enough similar material, which expanded again into planets. 12.A large collision between the Earth and a protoplanet (bombardment) formed the Moon. The impact caused part of the Earth’s mantle to disintegrate, as well as the colliding body. These debris circled the now molten Earth due to gravity, and by the same process protoplanets formed, combined into one body. 13.The Earth, molten from the Moon’s impact, responded to the swirling forces of orbits and gravity by becoming spherical. It’s much like a lump of clay on a potter’s wheel turns circular. The spinning (orbit) plus a guiding hand (gravity) shapes it into a roughly round shape. The heat of the inner core also pulled indentations towards itself as it spun, creating a round shape.


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