AnS214-Week 4-PART 1-Lectures Mon
AnS214-Week 4-PART 1-Lectures Mon AnS 214
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AnS 214 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Adur in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Domestic Animal Physiology in Animal Science at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter Two: Respiratory System Breathing does many things including: 1. Supplies oxygen to the body and disposes of carbon dioxide 2. Dissipates heat from the body 3. Helps water evaporate Main processes of respiration ❏ There are 4 main processes: 1. Pulmonary ventilation 2. External Respiration 3. Transportation of Gases 4. Internal Respiration ① Pulmonary Ventilation The muscle most involved in this process is the diaphragm All pulmonary ventilation is is breathing in and out → inspiration: breathing in → expiration: breathing out ② External Respiration Exchanges of gas between the environment and the body ③ Transportation of Gases Oxygen is transported in the blood 2 different ways: a. Carried in the plasma as dissolved gas b. Most oxygen is carried by the hemoglobin located in the red blood cells There are 2 sites of gas exchange: a. Between the tissues and blood of the body b. In the lungs The mechanism for gas exchange is simple diffusion ④ Internal Respiration The exchange of gasses between the cells and blood Functional Anatomy in Respiration Two Zone: 1. Conducting Zone 2. Respiratory Zone The Conduction Zone Includes all of the main organs that are not molecular → from the Nose all the way to the Bronchioles Conducts gas exchange The Respiratory Zone The actual site of gas exchange → from the Lungs to the Alveoli Air Filtration ❏ Cells from the conducting zone send air to the stratified epithelium ❏ Cilia helps move mucus to dampen the air so the alveoli does not dry out Warming and Humidification ❏ Body temperature helps warm the air that is inhaled to at least 37 degrees celsius ❏ Warm air holds more moisture which is beneficial to the alveoli Structures of the Upper Respiratory Tract: Conducting Zone ❏ The Nose/ Nasal Cavity Passage of inhaled air Warms the inhaled air Moistens the air with mucus for the cilia → acts as a protective coating Olfactory organs for smell and pheromones detections ❏ The Paranasal Sinuses Helps project our voices Moistens the inhaled air Makes the skull less heavy Regulates pressure Acts as a shock absorbance ❏ The Pharynx and Larynx Controls the passage of air and food → larynx: vocalizations → pharynx: passage of air and food to the esophagus That is why you cannot swallow and breathe at the same time ❏ The Trachea, Bronchus and Bronchioles C shaped cartilage rings keep the trachea erect The trachea produces mucus, warms/humidifies air The bronchial tree: → includes the bronchi and bronchioles → less cartilage, more smooth muscle → cilia aids in the movement of mucus The Lower Respiratory Tract: Respiratory Zone ❏ What is its function? exchanges gas between the blood and the alveoli and sends it to the tissues and cells throughout the entire body Structures 1. Lungs composed of air spaces surrounded by stroma a. What is Stroma? elastic connective tissue 2 organs paired that maximize all the space in the thoracic cavity of the body Have distinct lobes 2. Alveoli structural and functional unit Surrounded by fine elastic fibers Contains open pores that do 2 things: a. Connects adjacent alveoli b. Equalizes air pressure in the lungs Houses alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterilized Detailed Description of A Respiratory Membrane Mammalian Ventilation a.k.a. Breathing ❏ What is breathing? air movement in and out of the lungs; regulates pressure inside and outside the body; changes occur in lung volume. Boyle’s Law: Pressure (P) varies inversely with changes in v olume (V) Lung volume will increase → intrapulmonary pressure decreases (below the atmospheric pressure index) → finally air reenters the lungs Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity Inspiration ❏ An active process Muscles contract and the thoracic volume increases Lungs stretch out and intrapulmonary volume in turn increases As intrapulmonary volume increases → intrapulmonary pressure decreases Air will flow into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure are equal Expiration ❏ Quiet expiration is mostly a passive process Muscles relax and volume decreases Elastic lungs recoil and the intrapulmonary volume decreases As intrapulmonary volume decreases → intrapulmonary pressure increases Air flows out of the lungs along the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure = 0 ❏ Forced expiration is an active process utilizing intercostal and abdominal muscles ❏ Inspiratory and Expiratory Reserve Volume a.k.a. Residual Volume ❏ What is Vital Capacity? the maximum amount of air inspired after maximum expiration (T•V) + (I•R•V) + (E•R•V) ❏ What is Respiratory Minute Volume? Tidal Volume • Respiration Rate Dead Space ❏ Some inspired air never contributes to the respiratory cycle or gas exchange ❏ Volume of gas in Conducting Zone = ~ 150 mL ❏ Alveoli that do not contribute to gas exchange are likely to collapse ❏ What is Total Dead Space? sum of all nonusable volumes Alveolar Ventilation ❏ What is Alveolar Ventilation Rate (AVR)? the flow of gases into and out of the alveoli during a certain time AVR = Frequency x (TV Dead Space) (mL/min) (breaths/min) (mL/breath) ❏ Dead space is normally constant ❏ Rapid or shallow breathing causes the AVR to decrease Pulmonary Ventilation ❏ If volume changes → pressure changes → and then the flow of gas will equalize the pressure Gas Pressure Concepts 1. Boyle’s Law 2. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas a. The Partial Pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture Alveoli contains more CO a2 water vapor than atmospheric air 3. Henry’s Law the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid depends on 3 things: a. Solubility of the gas b. Temperature of the fluid c. Partial pressure of the gas Henry’s Law applied to blood → gas solubility and temperature are constant → the amount of gas dissolved is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas External and Internal Pressures ❏ Surface area of the respiratory membrane The thinner the resp. Membrane is the more surface area it possesses ❏ Partial pressure (PP) and gas solubility Steep oxygen PP Gentler carbon dioxide PP ❏ Ventilation & Perfusion coupling P of oxygen → arterial diameter → perfusion → What is perfusion? the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in its biological tissue P of carbon dioxide → bronchiolar diameter → ventilation → What is ventilation? the provision of fresh air to the lungs Hemoglobin ❏ The iron found in hemoglobin is ferrous Fe++ When it is combined with oxygen it forms the oxyhemoglobin When it is not combined with oxygen it forms the deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin ❏ When iron is oxidized it forms methemoglobin Fe++ ❏ When iron is combined with CO it forms 2rbaminohemoglobin ❏ When iron is combined with CO it forms carboxyhemoglobin ❏ The Influence of PO on Hemo2obin Saturation In arterial blood… PO 2 100 mmHg Contains 20 ml of oxygen per 100 ml blood (20 vol %) Hb is 98% saturated → Further increases in PO prod2es minimal increases in O binding 2 e.g. breathing deeply Loading and Unloading Reactions … depends on… ❏ PO o2environment ❏ Affinity between O and hemoglobin 2 Decreases by low pH, high 2,3 diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and high temperature Example: exercise CO 2roduction increases and the pH decreases Muscle temperature will increase → both events oxygen unloading increased Example: anemia 2,3 DPG production increases This will increase oxygen unloading Myoglobin ❏ Proteins found in striated muscles 1. Skeletal muscles 2. Cardiac muscles ❏ Higher affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin → oxygen goes from the hemoglobin to the myoglobin Oxygen is released when PO is ve2 low Results: oxygen is transferred from the hemoglobin to the mitochondria ❏ The myoglobin also serves to store oxygen (especially for aquatic mammals) Carbon Dioxide Transport ❏ Blood transport of carbon dioxide… 1. 20% carbaminohemoglobin 2. 10% dissolved in plasma 3. 70% as bicarbonate ions in plasma
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