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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Miller on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COB 202 at James Madison University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Business at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 2 MARS Model of Individual Behavior Individual Characteristics make us unique individuals and combine to determine one's motivation, ability, and role perceptions Employee Motivation o Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior o Elements of Motivation Direction Path by which a person steers his/her effort Intensity amount of effort put into a goal Persistence continual effort for a specified amount of time Employee Ability o Natural Talents and skills acquired that allow you to complete a job o PersonJob Matching Selecting applicants Developing Employees Redesigning Jobs Role Perceptions o Understand the job duties expected of us o Clearer role perceptions (role clarity) when we: Understand our tasks or accountable consequences Understand task/performance priorities Understand the preferred behavior/procedures o Benefits of clearer role perceptions More accurate/efficient job performance Better coordination with others Higher motivation Situational Factors o Environmental conditions beyond the individuals short term control Types of Individual Behavior Task Performance o Goaldirected behaviors under the individual’s control that support organizational objectives o Completing your responsibilities Organizational Citizenship o Cooperation and helpfulness to coworkers and organization that support the work context Counterproductive Work Behaviors o Behaviors that hamper the goals of the organization Joining and Staying with an Organization o Staying with the company long term Maintaining Work Attendance o Absences due to situations or motivation o Presenteeism when you are physically present but not mentally Defining Personality Those things that make us uniquely who we are Enduring pattern of thoughts emotions and behaviors Nature vs. Nurture The debate of whether you inherit your personality or it is formed by your environment Personality stabilizes in your 30’s Five Factor Model of Personality C Conscientiousness A Agreeableness N Neuroticism O Openness to Expense E Extraversion o Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are the best indicators of performance o ExtraversionSales and Management positions o Agreeableness Effective for Collaboration o Openness to experience High Creativity MBTI Measures Jungian types Widely used personality test in the business field Good for self and other awareness Poor predictor of performance, leadership, team building Identifies preferences for receiving information Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values Values in the Workplace Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences o Define right/wrong, good/bad o Direct motivation and behavior Value system hierarchy of values Compared with personality, values are: o Evaluative (not descriptive) o May conflict strongly with each other o Affected by nurture more than nature Schwartz’s Values Model Openness to change motivation to pursue innovative ways Conservation motivation to preserve the status flow Selfenhancement motivated by selfinterest SelfTranscendence motivation to promote welfare of others and nature Personal Values and Behavior Values Motivate guide decisions, behavior and performance Valuesbehavior “disconnect”because: o Awareness (salience) values are abstract relevance isn’t obvious To increase valuesconsistent behavior: o Keep workplace consistent with desired values o Remind employees of important values o Help employees be sensitive to relevance of values in the workplace Values Congruence Similarity to one’s values to another source Three Ethical Principles Utilitarianism an action that is best for the greater good Individual Rights Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice people who are similar should get similar benefits Influences on Ethical Conduct Moral Intensity o Degree that an issue demands the application of ethical principles Moral Sensitivity o Person’s ability to recognize presence and importance of an ethical issue Situational Influences o Competitive Pressures Supporting Ethical Behavior Corporate code of ethics Training Employees Systems for communicating/ investigating wrongdoing Individualism The degree to which people value personal freedom, selfsufficiency Collectivism Valuing the group before an individual Power Distance High Respect to authority and high obedience Low Expect relatively more sharing of power Uncertainty Avoidance How tolerant a worker is to uncertainty and ambiguity AchievementNurturing How geared culture is towards either nurturing its people or focusing more on competitiveness and achievement
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