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Day 2 Notes

by: Christina Notetaker
Christina Notetaker
GPA 3.902

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About this Document

These notes cover what was talked about in Day 2
Stress and Coping
Steven Ross
Class Notes
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3420 at California State University East Bay taught by Steven Ross in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Stress and Coping in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University East Bay.

Similar to 3420 at CSUEB

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


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Date Created: 09/12/16
CHAPTER 3 : Science of Stress • Autonomic Nervous           ­ Digestion, HR, BP, body temperature           ­ Not under autonomic control            1) Sympathetic = more chemicals get released like adrenaline that helps  you deal w/ this crisis      2) Parasympathetic                 ­ comes into play after you’ve dealt w/ the crisis                 ­ quiets the body & returns the body to a balanced state                     「 (「) On exam: what is that balanced state  called? Homeostasis.「                ­ promotes relaxation; tissues get a change to be repaired.                     「When the alarm system in the brain gets lowered, then  anxiety/stress levels get lowered.「 • Reticular Activating System • Brain Stem = also known as reptilian and hindbrain      ­ Most ancient part of the brain      ­ Regulates basic functions      ­ Responds reflexively w/ what it senses in the environment 「We learn faster from pain than pleasure.「 • Hindbrain      ­ Cerebellum = coordinates posture, responsible for coordination and  balance      ­ Medulla Oblongata = regulates HR, RR, & BP      ­ Pons = regulates the sleep cycle & some parts of respiration      ­ Limbic system = emotional control center of the brain                –– Amygdala = part of the limbic system                          ­ Where fear is first registered                                    「Ex. when you see something scary, that pathway  goes right to the amygdala. (「) On                                         exam: what if person has damage to the amygdala =  leaves the person very                                         calm/tame.「      ­ Cortex = most sophisticated part of our brain           ­ Where sensory information is decoded (when we begin to analyze  what we saw)                     「The cortex is the part that figures out/tries to make sense of  what it just saw.「                ¬ Cognitions = thoughts                          「The stimuli goes right to the amygdala, that’s when you  start to feel the emotions (fear).                               Emotions & cognitions exist in different parts of the brain. 「           ­ The cortex can override the amygdala  「Overly sensitive amygdala means that the cerebral cortex isn’t functioning  properly. The amygdala is       getting activated all the times » makes it hard for the cortex to kick in. 「 • OCD – repeated thoughts in one’s mind that causes them to perform rituals or repeated acts                「Have them wait for 15 seconds before taking action. The idea is:  if you can slow them down, it                     might break the ritual.「 • Limbic system = emotional control center for the brain           「Women are able to better read emotions of others, decipher tone of  voice, gauge nonverbal behavior,                certain gestures, tones. This part of the brain is 4x larger than  women.「      ­ Testosterone kills off nerve cells in the part of the brain responsible for  processing emotions. So           testosterone frees up space in the brain for aggressiveness, sexual  behavior, etc. • Reticular activating system = a collection of neurons/nerve cells and it  connects the outside world (what     you can see) to internal thoughts       「Helps them pay more attention. So they’re better able to pay attention to the stimuli. If this reticular           activating system is weak, it doesn’t excite the neurons, then it will  lead to difficulty. If the RAS is too           excited, it would lead to somebody becoming easily startled, restless,  & hyperactive.「 • Hippocampus = part of your brain that forms conscious memories of  emotional events           ­ Cortisol is a stress hormone                 「Repeated exposure to cortisol speeds up the aging process of the  hippocampus & may shrink the                     brain cells » affecting memory & learning process.「 • Hypothalamus = when threatened, will activate & release ACTH (powerful hormone) • Glucocorticoids = a stress hormone that is released      「Excess glucocorticoids released weakens the immune system & it  increases the production of a            particular type of fat (= cholesterol).「 • General Adaptation Syndrome (「): 「some questions on the exam will be  on this; look in the book「      1) Alarm      2) Resistance      3) Exhaustion • Thalamus = relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex CHAPTER 4: Mind/Body      「Stress people drink more alcohol, smoke more cigarettes, drink more  coffee.「 • Fight or flight syndrome      「When drinking alcohol during the fight/flight syndrome, your immune  system shuts down. Cortisol           slows down the production of glucose levels. Glucose are WBCs that  destroy infections » so ability to          fight infection is weakened.「 • Immune System • T­Cells / B­Cells      「Good cells/helper cells. They destroy viruses/bacteria. 「 • Interleukin­6 (cytokine)       「A chemical that when it’s overproduced, leads to heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, & cancer.「 • Oxytocin = during positive interactions (ex. « during sex, bonding w/  newborn, laughter), oxytocin is released      ­ A “feel good” chemical      ­ Boosts or helps the immune system • Depressed people      ­ depression seems to be related to levels of certain chemicals in the brain           –– Too low levels of serotonin seems to be connected to depression • Placebo = works through the power of suggestion       ­ They work frequently on pts.  • Self­fulfilling prophecy = if you have a strong belief in someone that you  can influence the outcome       ­ also related to self­fulfilling stereotypes           「Ex. « all asians are good at math, latinas are good at having babies.  To fix stereotype, you hold on to                it. 「 TEST REVIEW= 40 questions ­ During the fight/flight syndrome, increased consumption of oxygen,  metabolism is increased, blood sugar     level is increased (and if you have elevated levels of blood sugar  consistently = diabetes), increased brain     wave activity when stressed out ­ When adrenaline is used, that occurs during sympathetic nervous system      「BP, HR, and flow of oxygen to the muscles increase.「 ­ Placebos = you can still use them today      「These are [only] used in control studies.「 ­ Cardiovascular disease = #1 cause of stress      「When you have mental stress, it increases the demand of oxygen. B/c  your BP decreases » which increases the demand of oxygen.「


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