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Intro to Neuroscience

by: Sabrina Straus

Intro to Neuroscience PSYC 6

Marketplace > Dartmouth College > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 6 > Intro to Neuroscience
Sabrina Straus
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About this Document

9/12/16 class notes and chapter notes
Introduction to Neuroscience
Catherine Cramer
Class Notes
psych, Psycology, neuroscience, brain




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabrina Straus on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 6 at Dartmouth College taught by Catherine Cramer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at Dartmouth College.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
1. 09­12­16  Intro to Neuro Class Notes  ­Jose Delgado: controlling brain means controlling behavior by stimulating particular areas    A BRIEF HISTORY OF IDEAS  I.  Early ideas about the nervous system and sources of behavior    A.  mind­body dualism vs monism  ­Plato established d ​ ualism­  ​ separation between mind and body  ­Socrates and Aristotle­m ​ onism  ​ but Aristotle thought the center was the heart    B.  Plato and Hippocrates – pneuma (spirits that produce function of thinking)    C.  Descartes – mechanical perspective­dualist but still a connection between mind and soul­>>  wiring analogy (connecting nervous system)  D. Franz Gall­ different parts of the brain result in different functions (​phrenological mass) ​  but  never did an experiment and skull doesn’t equivalate to brain  E. Phineas Gage­got shot in the head but survived although his personality changed  F. Paul Broca­had a patient who lost the ability to speak due to a loss of tissue known as Broca’s  tissue    G. Ramon y Cajal­proposed that the nervous system worked based on neurons passing on info  H. Golgi­ created a stain so people can visualize neurons  I.  Galvani ­ animal electricity     II.  Beginnings of modern neuroscience    A.  British empiricism (Hume, Locke & others)    scientific method    B.  Moving toward localization of function    Bell – 1812 ­ sensory vs. motor    Gall –1820s ­ phrenology    Flourens – 1820s ­ ablation technique    Phineas Gage – 1848 – orbitofrontal cortex    Broca – 1860 ­ neurological assessment    C.  Cellular identification    Ramon y Cajal (1906 Nobel prize with Golgi):  neuron doctrine                                                                          Chapter Notes  Chapter 1: Past, Present, and Future  >Origins:  ­nervous system= brain, spinal cord, and nerves of the body  ­Egypt­heart is soul  ­Greece­brain is the organ of sensation and seat of intelligence but Aristotle still thought the  heart was the center  ­Romans­c ​ erebrum  ​ (sensation, perception, and memory) and c ​ erebellum  ​ (movement control  center)  ­Renaissance­brain is machine like (Descartes=f ​ luid­mechanical theory} ​  separated mind from  brain)­> two types of brain tissue: gray matter and white matter (brought info to and from gray  matter)­> pattern of bumps (g ​ yri​  and grooves (s ​ ulci​  on brain and each bump has a different  function (l​ ocalization) ​   ­Ben Franklin with electricity began to equate nerves as wires with nerve fibers (dorsal root aka  sensory carriers enters toward the back of the spinal cord and ventral root enters toward the  front) ­> correlating structure with personality traits = ​phrenology  ­adaptation with Darwin  ­development in microscopy gave way to the fact that tissues are composed of cells  Parts  ­nervous system has two divisions: c ​ entral nervous system( ​ brain and spinal cord)  ​ + peripheral  nervous system​(nerves and nerve cells)  ­three parts of brain: ​cerebrum(frontal lobe, central sulcus, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, sylvian  fissure, temporal lobe), cerebellum, and brainstem  Fields of Neuroscience  ­molecular: study of molecules and how they can be messengers to allow neurons to  communicate, sentries that control the materials entering and exiting, conductors that  orchestrate neuron growth, archivists, etc  ­cellular: how molecules work together  ­systems: constellations of neurons and the circuits they form ex: motor, visual, etc.  ­behavioral: how do the systems work together to cause different behaviors  ­cognitive: self­awareness, imagination, language  Disorders:                                      *the goal of neuroscience is to understand how nervous systems function 


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