Intro to Neuroscience
Intro to Neuroscience PSYC 6
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabrina Straus on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 6 at Dartmouth College taught by Catherine Cramer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at Dartmouth College.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
1. 091216 Intro to Neuro Class Notes Jose Delgado: controlling brain means controlling behavior by stimulating particular areas A BRIEF HISTORY OF IDEAS I. Early ideas about the nervous system and sources of behavior A. mindbody dualism vs monism Plato established d ualism separation between mind and body Socrates and Aristotlem onism but Aristotle thought the center was the heart B. Plato and Hippocrates – pneuma (spirits that produce function of thinking) C. Descartes – mechanical perspectivedualist but still a connection between mind and soul>> wiring analogy (connecting nervous system) D. Franz Gall different parts of the brain result in different functions (phrenological mass) but never did an experiment and skull doesn’t equivalate to brain E. Phineas Gagegot shot in the head but survived although his personality changed F. Paul Brocahad a patient who lost the ability to speak due to a loss of tissue known as Broca’s tissue G. Ramon y Cajalproposed that the nervous system worked based on neurons passing on info H. Golgi created a stain so people can visualize neurons I. Galvani animal electricity II. Beginnings of modern neuroscience A. British empiricism (Hume, Locke & others) scientific method B. Moving toward localization of function Bell – 1812 sensory vs. motor Gall –1820s phrenology Flourens – 1820s ablation technique Phineas Gage – 1848 – orbitofrontal cortex Broca – 1860 neurological assessment C. Cellular identification Ramon y Cajal (1906 Nobel prize with Golgi): neuron doctrine Chapter Notes Chapter 1: Past, Present, and Future >Origins: nervous system= brain, spinal cord, and nerves of the body Egyptheart is soul Greecebrain is the organ of sensation and seat of intelligence but Aristotle still thought the heart was the center Romansc erebrum (sensation, perception, and memory) and c erebellum (movement control center) Renaissancebrain is machine like (Descartes=f luidmechanical theory} separated mind from brain)> two types of brain tissue: gray matter and white matter (brought info to and from gray matter)> pattern of bumps (g yri and grooves (s ulci on brain and each bump has a different function (l ocalization) Ben Franklin with electricity began to equate nerves as wires with nerve fibers (dorsal root aka sensory carriers enters toward the back of the spinal cord and ventral root enters toward the front) > correlating structure with personality traits = phrenology adaptation with Darwin development in microscopy gave way to the fact that tissues are composed of cells Parts nervous system has two divisions: c entral nervous system( brain and spinal cord) + peripheral nervous system(nerves and nerve cells) three parts of brain: cerebrum(frontal lobe, central sulcus, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, sylvian fissure, temporal lobe), cerebellum, and brainstem Fields of Neuroscience molecular: study of molecules and how they can be messengers to allow neurons to communicate, sentries that control the materials entering and exiting, conductors that orchestrate neuron growth, archivists, etc cellular: how molecules work together systems: constellations of neurons and the circuits they form ex: motor, visual, etc. behavioral: how do the systems work together to cause different behaviors cognitive: selfawareness, imagination, language Disorders: *the goal of neuroscience is to understand how nervous systems function
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