Notes from Aug. 24
Notes from Aug. 24 HORT 3440
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Shah on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants in Biology/Anthropology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Notes from Aug. 24 – Culinary Herbs Key: Vocab Word Family/Genus/Species Name Compound/Component Part(s) Used A few different ones: Lemon thyme; Rosemary; Mountain mint; Oregano; Lime basil; Parsley; Sage; Marjoram; Tulsi; Lamb’s ear; Spearmint; Lemon balm; Thai basil; Lavender; Japanese field mint; Savory; Fennell; Horseradish; Cat whiskers; Mace; Nutmeg; Cloves. The Mint Family – Lamiaceae ○ Vegetative Characteristics” ▪ Herbs & shrubs ▪ Square stems ▪ Opposite leaves (pairs) ▪ Aromatic oils ▪ Cosmopolitan – distributed all over the world, but most highly concentrated in the Mediterranean region ○ Reproductive Characteristics: ▪ The flowers have mostly the same look They often form in whorls around the stem(s) Circles around They’re bilaterally symmetrical (equal shapes on both sides) At the base, 3 petals make like a landing pad for pollinators Looks like a lip ▪ Fruit form 4 “nutlets” each ○ Essential Oils ▪ Responsible for aroma and taste ▪ Volatile – easily evaporated at normal temperatures ▪ Usually stored in special cells or little hairs (trichomes) on leaves ▪ Soluble in alcohol and fats—not so much in water ○ Menthol is present in most species of the mint genus ▪ It’s valued for its scent, taste, and healing properties ▪ Used in modern herbal medicine for stomach and intestinal discomfort as well as to relieve muscle pain and headaches ○ Main Family Members: ▪ Peppermint – Mentha Perennial Doesn’t require much water Mints tend to spread like crazy and can become weeds Peppermint oil has a lot of commercial applications Main chemical is menthol ▪ Rosemary Symbolizes remembrance Energizing Good with meats Evergreen ▪ Basil Annual plant – grown from seeds every year Many varieties Likes the sun Easy to grow Pesto: basil, olive oil, pine nuts, and parmesan cheese ▪ Oregano Has a more biting flavor ▪ Marjoram Has a milder flavor It’s in the same genus as oregano They’re closely related ▪ Sage – Salvia Salvia is Latin for life saving and healthy Popular medicinal plant in Europe Good with meat Several varieties ▪ Thyme Thymus vularis is one type Small leaves Grows in clumps and trails Many varieties, like English and chocolate Savory The Parsley Family Apiaceae ○ Carrots are in this fam ○ Vegetative Characteristics: ▪ Herbs ▪ Alternating leaves – often acts as a sheath ▪ Aromatic oils present ▪ Leaves are often dissected – divided in numerous sections ▪ Widely distributed, most diverse around the Mediterranean ○ Reproductive Characteristics: ▪ Flowers and fruits are inflorescenses In a flowering plant, groups or clusters of flowers grow on a branch or system of branches Each of the clusters of flowers come out from one point These points are called umbles – like umbrella ▪ Flowers are usually small and inconspicuous individually, but are often arranged in clusters ▪ Fruits produce two seeds with a little in the middle The seeds separate when the fruit is mature There are little canals in the fruit that contain oils Dry fruit composed of 2 oneseeded mericarps ○ Parsley/Carrot Family Members ▪ Cilantro and Coriander Cilantro is the leaves and stems of the plant Coriander is from the seeds The plant looks like parsley Has a lot of vitamins that improve health, like Vitamin A and Vitamin B ▪ Chervil Common in French cuisine Has a faint licorice flavor and a small, delicate taste ▪ Dill Leaves are used For fish and salad The seeds are important for pickling process Dill pickles ▪ Anise Contains Anaful/Anathol (?) giving it the strong licorice flavor and scent Ingredient in licorice Anise is used to make the alcohols Absinthe and Aguardiente ▪ Cumin The Mustard Family – Brassicaceae ○ Reproductive Characteristics: ▪ Flowers have 4 petals, arranged in a cross ▪ Fruit are a long or short pods Open along 2 sutures Capsule fruit type called sillqua (plural sillquae) ○ Members: ▪ All of these vegetables have been derived from one species, Brassica oleracea, by methodically selecting plants in cultivation that had the desired characteristics They are cultigens ▪ Grouped by parts of the plant Leaves: kale and collard greens Terminal buds – cabbage Terminal buds are located at the tip of the stem Axillary (lateral) buds – Brussel sprouts Axillary buds are located in the axil of a leaf Axil is the angle between the stem and the leaf –where the leaf connects to the stem Stem – kohlrabi Inflorescences – Broccoli and cauliflower Inflorescences here are the flower head of the plant Mustard comes from seeds – white, brown, and black