New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Module 1: The History and Scope of Psychology

by: Danielle Chapman

Module 1: The History and Scope of Psychology Py101

Marketplace > McPherson College > Science > Py101 > Module 1 The History and Scope of Psychology
Danielle Chapman

GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the first module in Intro to Psychology, they are very simple and easy to understand. (Let me know if you need more information as to what is already on the slides).
Intro to Psychology
Professor James Lumley
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology

Popular in Science

This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Chapman on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Py101 at McPherson College taught by Professor James Lumley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Science at McPherson College.


Reviews for Module 1: The History and Scope of Psychology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/16
Module 1: The History and Scope of Psychology Psychology is about Topics and Questions understanding mind, self, and others. ▪ The origins and growth of psychology, from questions to a Bring your curiosity to science class, with questions like: ▪ The big question: do our human traits develop through How do I explain experience (nurture), or are we dreams? Anxiety? The born with them (nature)? abilities and funny behavior of babies? ▪ Psychology’s biopsychosocial How can I learn to use levels of analysis my mind to be more ▪ Psychology’s subfields successful in my life? To be more effective in ▪ Applying psychology to learning helping others? the text: SQ3R From speculation to science: The Birth of Modern Psychology Aristotle (4 century BCE) had ideas about how the body and mind work. His method: making guesses. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) added two key elements to help make psychology a science: 1. carefully measured observations 2. experiments Wilhelm Wundt’s 1879 experiment measured the time it took for people to: Push a button when a ball Push a button when dropped (based on when they consciously aware of hearing heard the ball hit a platform):the ball hit the platform: 1/10th of a second. 2/10ths of a second. Structuralism ▪ Eintrospection, reporting on sensations and other elements of experience. ▪ Sview of the mind’s structuretrospective reports to build a Functionalism: The school of thought that Psychological processes have a function: helping us survive as individuals, adapt as a species ▪ The developer of functionalism, William James (1842-1910), asked: How did the human style of thinking and behavior enable our ancestors to live long enough to reproduce? WJamesm ▪ James mentored another pioneer Psychology Pioneers ▪ Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) became a memory researcher and the first female president of the APA. ▪ She studied with William James but was denied a Harvard PhD. Why? Because of her gender. Mary Whiton Psychology Pioneers Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939): ▪ The first female to earn a Psychology PhD ▪ The second female APA president ▪ Author of The Animal Mind. Margaret Floy Washburn, Shifting definitions of “psychology” John B. Now wWatson and Wundt and B.F. Skinner, psychologists, Edward thesebehaviorists, 1960’s, Titchener, “The1920’s: “The studied around 1900: behavior andic internal mental “The science study of processes, of mental obehavior.” helped by life.” processes.” neuroscience. Trends in Psychological Science: Behaviorism Behaviorists study and experiment with observable behavior. Watson experimented with conditioned John B. Watson responses. Skinner studied the way consequences shape behavior. Like other behaviorists, he saw little value in B. F. Skinner introspection. Trends in Psychology: Freudian/Psychoanalytic Psychology Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis: ▪ He studied and helped people with a variety of mental disorders. ▪ More about Freud when we study personality and therapy Sigmund Freud Trends in Psychology: Humanism Humanists: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (1960s): ▪ studied people who were thriving rather than those who had psychological Abraham Maslow problems. ▪ developed theories and treatments to help people to feel accepted and to reach their full potential. The Growth of ▪ Psychology’s pioneers have come Psychology from many fields: physiology, philosophy, medicine, and biology. ▪ Advances in psychology also have been made in many countries ▪ Psychology has spread rapidly; there are 71 member nations in the IUPThe subjects studied in multiplied too… as we shall see in this course. The Big Issue in Psychology: N-N The Nature-Nurture Question: To what extent are our traits already set in place at birth (our “Nature”)? And to what extent do our traits develop in response to our environment/ experience (our “Nurture”)? Plato: Aristotle: Ideas such All knowledge as “the comes through good” and the senses. Descartes: “beauty” Some ideas are inborn. are innate. Nature vs. Nurture John Locke: Charles Darwin: Some The mind is a traits become part of blank slate (blank our nature through chalkboard or nahelp us survive longy screen) “written enough to pass the traits on” by experience. to the next generation. We share a common We have origiNature + Nurtureerences gives us an that are inborn human shaped by our nature in environment. common. Biology Plus Environment.. The , culture, education, relationships transmitters, survival, reflexes, : thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, perceptions The outer level, Environment: social Influences The three levels as influences on some psychological phenomenon Examamlp:E:Djyirgesnccer There are many perspectives for describing psychological From different angles, you ask different questions: phenomena: Cognitive How reliable is memory? How can we improve our perspective thinking? Could our behavior, skills, and attitudes be Social-cultural “downloads” from our culture? Behavioral genetics Could our behavior, skills, and attitudes be genetically programmed instincts? Neuroscience What role do our bodies and brains play in emotions? How is pain inhibited? Can we trust our senses? Psychodynamic Do inner childhood conflicts still plague me and affect my behavior? How are our problematic behaviors reinforced? Behaviorist How do our fears become conditioned? What can we do to change these fears and behaviors? Evolutionary Why are humans prone to panic, anger, and Let’s play: “What’s my perspective?” “Obsessive- “Compulsions start as habits compulsive and are rewarded by the disorder is a anxiety relief they bring.” problem in the orbital cortex.” “No, it’s a sign “OCD comes of unresolved “No, OCD from our childhood is an natural instinct issues.” inherited environment.”ur condition.” “OCD thinking and behavior is a reaction to our “No, OCD is a matter fast-paced, out- of mental habits and of-control errors that can be lifestyles.” corrected.” Psychology’s Subfields Biological Clinical Psychology Developmental Counseling Psychology Educational Psychology Cognitive Personality Industrial-Organizational Social Community Psychology Positive Psychology Clinical Psychology Psychology’s Subfields Research Examples Biological Explore the structural problems in the brain that may be part of Developmental Study how the stages of cognitive and emotional development vary in ASD Cognitive Clarify the difficulties children have understanding sarcasmder Personality Decide whether traits like neuroticism need to be Social measured differently in ASD learn social skills as procedures if not by intuition Positive Psychology Explore what motivates people satisfactiontes to life Psychology’s Subfields Applied Clinical Psychology Use exposure therapy to decrease phobic reactions in a Counseling Psychology Help someone achieve career goals despite family conflict and self-doubt Educational Psychology Evaluate aptitudes and student with learning problems -Organizational Figure out how a factory can improve coordination of tasks, Community Psychology roles, and personalities to understand and preventefforts elder abuse Clinical Psychology Use exposure therapy to decrease phobic reactions in a Psychology in context with other professions Psychiatrists are physicians, M.D.s or D.O.s. They can prescribe medication. In addition to psychologists, counseling, and marriage andk, family therapy may be trained to do psychotherapy. An Application of Psychology: Improving your test performance Scientific studies show us that: Testing yourself boosts retention of material. • The retrieval practice effect/testing effect Actively processing material helps master it. • Put it in your own words, make connections Spaced rehearsal, interspaced with other subjects, is more efficient than cramming. • Spread studying over multiple days People tend to overestimate their mastery. • If the concept looks familiar… not good enough Applying this knowledge: Use SQ3R to master a textbook Survey Scan/Skim what you are about to read, especially chapter outlines and section heads. Question Ask questions that the text might answer; write guesses. Read Look for the answer to your questions, reading a manageable amount at a time. Rehearse Recall what you’ve read in your own words. Test yourself with quizzes. Review Look over text and notes and quickly review the main ideas of the whole chapter. Photo Credits • Slide 2: • Tim Gainey/Alamy • WoodyStock/Alamy • OLO Images Ltd/Alamy • © Bettmann/ CORBIS • Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images • Slide 4: © Bettmann/ CORBIS • Slide 7: Mary Evans Picture Library / Alamy • Slide 8: Wellesley College Archives • Slide 9: Center for the History of Psychology Archives of the History of American Psychology, The University of Akron • Slide 11: • © Underwood & Underwood/ CORBIS • Bachrach/ Getty Images • Slide 12: Bettmann/ CORBIS • Slide 13: • Bettmann/ CORBIS • Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.