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Psychology of Criminal Behavior, Lecture 2

by: Emily Scelta-Neff

Psychology of Criminal Behavior, Lecture 2 PIA 386

Marketplace > Adelphi University > PIA 386 > Psychology of Criminal Behavior Lecture 2
Emily Scelta-Neff

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About this Document

A succinct compilation of the concepts from Chapter 2.
Psychology of Criminal Behavior
Mulinos, M
Class Notes
ciminology, Criminal, behavior, Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Scelta-Neff on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PIA 386 at Adelphi University taught by Mulinos, M in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
An individual’s ​developmental path​way can start at childhood and can be indicative of a specific  future lifestyle. The more “risk factors” an individual is exposed to, the more likely their  developmental pathway is indicative of criminal behavior.           Social and Parental Risk Factors     Poverty    Poverty is to be in the state of such severe financial deficit that one cannot obtain  necessary materials and services to live a healthy life. The stress associated with poverty can  lead to ineffective, abusive parenting that supports violent, criminal behavior from children.      Stress is a cofactor: a factor affecting the factor of poverty that makes it hard to define a  direct correlation between poverty and criminal behavior. Cofactors include discrimination,  limited social support, racism, and family disruptions. Because of this, there is no provable direct  correlation between poverty and criminal behavior. In fact, several poor children and adults are  lawfully innocent and several well­off children and adults have been convicted of criminal  behavior.     Parenting Styles     A parent’s parenting style is characterized by their attitude toward their child. There are four  distinct categories under which all parenting styles fall: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive,  and neglecting. These can be further categorized under two other umbrella terms: lax and  enmeshed parenting styles.     An ​authoritarian parenting style​ is characterized by the need of the parent to exert control on  their child. They enforce that control by implementing numerous rules and regulations that must  be rigidly observed, at risk of punishment.   An authoritarian parent exercises what is known as e ​ nmeshed parenting. ​  With  enmeshed parenting, the parent sees an unusually large number of minor issues as  problematic and uses ineffective strategies to deal with them.     An ​authoritative parent​ tries to direct their child’s behavior rationally while encouraging  individuality and independence.     A ​permissive parenting style​ is characterized by tolerance of the child’s behavior, include  tolerance of delinquency and deviant behavior. The parent regards themselves as a giver of  advice only when asked.   A permissive parent exercises what is known as l ​ ax parenting. ​  With lax parenting, the  parent is not sufficiently attuned to what constitutes problematic or antisocial behavior in  children, and thus does nothing about it.     A ​neglectful parent​ seeks neither to control or tolerate their child’s behavior. The only active  response this kind of parent will betray is a rejection of the child’s emotional need.     Depending on which parenting styles a child has been exposed to, the child will exhibit  different behaviors and symptoms.   ​ So​ me children​ have a ​ ttachment issues, either a ​ nxious or ​avoidant. Sometimes, a child will  reject their parent completely if the parent does not give them undivided attention (this is known  as anxious insecure attachment). Other times, a child will not display any emotion toward their  parent no matter what the parent does (this is called avoidant insecure attachment). S ​ attachment is indicative of a healthy parent­child relationship and is characterized by the child  using their parent as a secure emotional base.     Researchers have strayed away from the thought that there is a direct correlation  between single­parent households and delinquency. Although early data (1950’s) seems to  suggest that delinquents are more likely than non­delinquents to come from single­parent  homes, there is just as much data supporting that children from emotionally healthy,  single­parent families are less likely to become deviant than children from conflict­heavy, intact  households.                                              Psychological Risk Factors     Certain behavioral disorders are linked to criminal behavior. These include Oppositional Defiant  Disorder, ADHD, and language and cognitive disorders.     Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Disruptive Behavior Disorder, is characterized by  overly disruptive and aggressive behavior lasting for a prolonged period of time.   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is accompanied by disruptive behavioral patterns  that cause poor scholastic performance and may make the child unfavorable among his peers.   Certain issues with language and cognition may also make a child unfavorable among  his peers, leading to social rejection.     Peer Rejection and Association with Antisocial Peers     Which Children Become Socially Rejected and Criminally Involved?     One theory is that any child can become involved in deviant behavior as a direct result of  association with deviant peer groups.   Another theory is that antisocial children seek greater contact with deviant peer groups.   A third theory is that peer rejection encourages deviant children to participate in  deviant peer groups, which in turn encourage those children to become even  more deviant and antisocial.     Both peer rejection and involvement with antisocial peers would be characteristic of a  developmental pathway to delinquency. Peer­rejected children frequently interact with one  another or gravitate toward antisocial peers.  Children rejected by their peers can have introverted personalities, but sometimes they suffer  from conduct disorders that support disruptive behavior. This disruptive, aggressive behavior  combined with social rejection can inhibit the formation of social skills and can be characteristic  of a developmental pathway to delinquency.                      


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