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Developmental Psychology: Chapter Two

by: M.G

Developmental Psychology: Chapter Two PSYC 3310

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Psychology > PSYC 3310 > Developmental Psychology Chapter Two
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These notes cover all of the chapter two lecture. As stated before, notes are not free.
Developmental Psychology
Dr. M. Guarneri-White
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3310 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. M. Guarneri-White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Lecture Four/Five  Chapter Two  9/06/2016­9/08/2016  Overview  ● Connect Link  ○ 1­800­3(?)31­5094 (support)  ● Quiz 1 went well    Video Notes  Life’s Greatest Miracle  ● Everyone, whether they realize it or not, is motivated by the eventual need to reproduce  ○ Urge to procreate is a fundamental part of life  ■ DNA is the reason  ● Body has 100 trillion cells  ● Where there is sex, there is variety  ○ Variety has an advantage  ■ Diverse immune systems  ● Meiosis produces gametes: eggs and sperm  ○ 23 chromosomes in each gamete  ● Men have sperm, which replenish themselves constantly  ● Women have eggs, which are all present at birth  ○ This is why menopause can occur ­ once you’re out, you’re out  ○ Eggs are handpicked and nourished as it prepares for ovulation  ○ Critical period of a few hours to fertilize the egg  Lecture Notes:  ● Survival of the fittest  ○ The fittest are those that live long enough to reproduce viable offspring  ○ Evolution explains behaiors/physical features  ■ Men (spatial skills)  ● Ability to throw a spear and kill animals  ○ This is attractive to women, which increases the chances  the man will reproduce  ■ The children from this relationship will be well­fed  (dad is good hunter), which increases the chance of  the children surviving long enough to reproduce and  pass the positive characteristics to their own  children  ● Evolutionary developmental psych  ○ Explains humans and behavior  ■ Humans have large brains, which mature slowly  ● Some mechanisms of adaptation isn’t compatible with modern  society  ○ For example, because we live in a secure food  environment, we should be eating low calorie foods  ○ Natural selection extends through early adulthood  ■ Benefits decrease with age  ● Why do we not die off as soon as we pass reproductive age?  ○ As we grow more frail, our purpose then goes to the social  support system  ■ Harmful conditions/disorders are not weeded out  ● Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s  ● Genetics  ○ DNA is comprised of chromosomes, which contains genes  ○ All cells in the human body have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which all reproduce  through mitosis  ■ Except eggs and sperm, which reproduce through meiosis  ○ Fertilization  ■ Where the egg and sperm fuse to create a single cell, the zygote  ● Each zygote gets 23 chromosomes from each parent  ○ Inheritance  ■ Simple dominant­recessive inheritance  ● One allele dominates another so that only its phenotype (physical  presentation) is expressed  ■ Co­dominance  ● Two heterozygous (where someone has two different alleles) but  equally powerful alleles produce a phenotype in which genes are  equally and fully expressed  ■ Incomplete dominance  ● Produces a mixed phenotype  ○ I.e, red and blue forms purple  ■ X­linked characteristics  ● X­linked characteristics are much more devastating to males,  because they only have one X chromosome (meaning that if they  have a disorder from the X chromosome, they don’t have any  genetic information to combat that)  ● Hemophilia  ● Color­blindness  ● Heredity­environment correlations  ○ As children age, their experiences extend past familial influence  ○ Passive genotype  ■ Environments in the family home influenced by the parents’ genes  ○ Evocative  ■ Our heritable attributes affect other people’s behavior towards us and will  then influence our social environment where our development takes place  ○ Active  ■ Our genotypes affect the environments we prefer and seek out  ​ ■ Genes influence the kind of life experiences we have, but do ​not determine  our environment  ○ Environments available can limit possible phenotypes  ● Environmental influence  ○ Shared  ■ Siblings  ■ Parents may treat all children the same  ○ Non­shared  ■ An environmental influence that people living together do not share  ● Ex, being treated differently by parents  ● Gene­environment interaction  ○ The effect of exposure to an environmental situation on behavior is conditional  upon a person’s genotype  ■ Variations among people’s psychological reactions to an environmental  situation may be due to a gene­environment interaction  ○ Genes themselves bear no large relation to outcome when the environmental  exposure is canceled out  ● Prenatal development  ○ Conception  ■ When fertilization occurs  ○ Prenatal development lasts for 266 days, beginning with fertilization and ending  with birth  ○ Three periods  ■ Germinal period  ● First two weeks after conception, where the zygote attaches to the  uterine wall  ■ Embryonic period  ● Two to eight weeks after conception, where organs form and cells  differentiate  ■ Fetal period  ● Two months until birth, where growth and development continues  ○ The brain  ■ The basic architecture of the brain forms during the first two trimesters,  during which neurons move to their places and start connecting  ● After birth, brain development continues  ● At birth, babies have around 100 billion neurons  ○ Teratogens  ■ External agents that can harm a developing embryo or fetus  ■ The effects depend on the dosage, time of exposure, and the genetic  susceptibility the fetus has  ■ Diseases and exposures from the mother  ● Rubella  ○ Can cause blindness, deafness, cardiac abnormalities, and  mental retardation  ● Toxoplasmosis  ○ Mild cold­like symptoms in the mother  ○ Can cause birth defects such as severe brain and eye  damage  ○ Can cause miscarriage if exposed later in the pregnancy  ● Psychoactive drugs  ○ Fetal alcohol syndrome  ○ Nicotine  ■ ADHD  ■ SIDS  ■ Low birth weight  ● Infectious diseases  ○ AIDs and STDs  ● Incompatible parental blood type  ○ Rh positive/negative  ● Newborn assessment and complication  ○ Anoxia  ■ Lack of sufficient oxygen to the brain  ● Can happen due to a tangle in the umbilical cord, a breech baby,  and Rh incompatibility  ○ Rh factor  ■ A protein in the blood that can cause the mother’s blood to produce  antibodies if the fetus’ blood is incompatible  ○ Low birth weight  ■ A weight less than 5 ½ lbs,  ■ Very low  ● Weight less than 3 lbs  ■ Consequences  ● Low brain weight, risk of brain injury  ● ADHD/learning problems  ● Breathing problems  ■ Kangaroo care, close physical contact, can help infants stabilize breathing  and their heartbeat    Glossary  ● Natural selection: ​The evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that  are best adapted to their environment are most likely to survive until after reproduction  ● Evolutionary psychology: ​An approach that emphasizes the importance in adaptation,  reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior  ● Chromosomes: ​ threadlike structures made up of DNA  ● DNA​: Also termed deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is a double helix molecule that contains  genetic information  ● Genes:​ The units of heredity information in short segments of DNA  ● Mitosis:​ The process by which body cells reproduce  ● Meiosis: ​The process by which the body produces gametes  ● Fertilization:​ The moment at which an egg and sperm fuse  ● Zygote: ​ The cell formed from the fusion of      


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