Kin 319 ch. 2 notes
Kin 319 ch. 2 notes KIN 319
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keaunna Flesner on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 319 at Western Illinois University taught by Professor Radlo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Stress Psychophysiology Chapter #2 Chapter Overview • Components of the brain and body involved with stress • Stress pathways (endocrine, autonomic) • Other components involved: – Cardiovascular system – Gastrointestinal system – Muscles, skin The Brain • Two major components 1. Cerebral cortex (thinking functions) 2. Subcortex (physiological processes) Subcortex • Includes the Limbic System (“seat of emotions”) – Thalamus – Hypothalamus Diencephalon • See Figure 2.1 Subcortex (cont.) • Figure 2.1 also shows structure and location of the following components: – Hippocampus (sounds the stress alarm) – Cerebellum (coordinates body movement) – Pons (regulates sleep) – Medulla oblongata(heart beat, respiration) Did You Know? • Hippocampus “sounds the alarm” that stress is present • Adrenal glands release glucocorticoids during stress • Glucocorticoids are detected by hippocampal cells • With prolonged stress, these cells are damaged and possibly lost forever Stress and its Pathways • The hypothalamus activates the following under a stress response: – Autonomic nervous system • Immediate fight-or-flight response – Endocrine system • Short-term and long-term stress response Autonomic Nervous System • Two systems working together during immediate stress – Sympathetic (responsible for expending energy) – Parasympathetic (responsible for conserving energy) Figure 2.6 shows innervation of both divisions of the ANS Endocrine System • Includes glands that secrete hormones • Hormones travel through the blood stream • These hormones change function of bodily tissues • See Figure 2.3 Endocrine System (cont.) • 4 pathways – Adrenal Medulla – Adrenal Cortex – Thyroid – Vasopressin (ADH) and Oxytocin Adrenal Medulla • Secretes two catecholamines: epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin) • Effects remain 10 times longer than adrenal corticoids and include: Increased heart rate Increased basal metabolic Increased stroke force rate Dilation of coronary Constriction of vessels to arteries skin of arms, legs, muscles Dilation of bronchial tbIncreased O consumption 2 Adrenal Cortex • glandenced by the hypothalamus and pituitary • mineralocorticoidsretes glucocorticoids and • Primary glucocorticoid is cortisol • Primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone • Cortisol provides fuel for “fight-or-flight” action • Aldosterone increases blood pressure to prepare for action Thyroid • Influenced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland • Thyroid gland secretes thyroxin • Increases the following: – Basal metabolic rate – Free fatty acids – Gluconeogenesis – Gastrointestinal motility – Respiration – Heart rate – Blood pressure – Anxiety Vassopressin (ADH) and Oxytocin • ADH and oxytocin are produced by the pituitary gland • ADH acts on the kidneys to decrease urine production via water retention • Oxytocin increases contraction of the walls of blood vessels • Together, these two changes will increase blood pressure The Cardiovascular System • Transports blood to cells and organs • Stress on the circulatory system may cause release of oxytocin and vasopressin • Both can constrict blood vessels, leading to increased blood pressure • Heart responds with increased force of contraction • Cholesterol and free fatty acids increase risk of heart disease The Gastrointestinal System • Responsible for digestion • Stress reduces saliva production and increases hydrochloric acid production • Ulcers can develop • Stress can alter rhythmic movement of food, leading to bowel distress and diseases The Muscles •Stress results in tensing, known as “bracing” •Leads to the development of muscle pain and aches The Skin • Involved with stress response • Temperature and electrical conduction affected • Stress causes increased perspiration • Vasoconstriction occurs during stress, causing skin color to change
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