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HIST 2057, Week 2

by: Taylor Wilson

HIST 2057, Week 2 HIST 2057

Taylor Wilson
GPA 3.5

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Chapter 16: Settling and Unsettling the American West
The United States From 1865 to the Present
Catherine Jacquet
Class Notes
us, history
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Wilson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Catherine Jacquet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The United States From 1865 to the Present in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18 Settling and Unsettling the American West: Chapter 16 Transcontinental railroad  One coming from the west and east o Connect a promontory point, may 10, 1869  Huge deal, basically connects the pacific to the Atlantic  Workers celebrated o Brings more people between Omaha, Nebraska and Nevada Railroads 1870  Most railroads in the east  Marks expansion  Railroad revolution o 1870-1890  35,000 miles of track  200,000 miles of track  600 % increase o Most railroads built west of the Mississippi o Railroads heavily subsidized by the U.S. Government  Gov’t grants 181 million acres for acres o The equivalent of LA, MS, AL, GA, SC, FL combines Nebraska Land grants  Private businesses build the railroads  Then sold the land o Pretty good deal $$ Who built the railroads?  Depends on the time period and where o Antebellum era built by slaves o Post antebellum era built by convicts o Irish built for union pacific o Chinese built central pacific  Dangerous work, grueling Shortage of workers for constructing the railroads  recruited the Chinese to help  Stereotypes about Chinese laborers  Too weak and insubstantial  Not able to the kind of heavy labor that was need, moving rocks and whatnot o Well they built the great wall so they said they could build it  Famine and starvation in China, so the workers came to the U.S. o On Sundays they feasted in the U.S 1 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18 Building the Railroad  People lowered by ropes on the sides of cliffs  Chiseled at the cliffs by hand  Black powder use to be put in cracks and exploded Impact of the railroads  Vast areas of commercial farming  No seasonal impact, railroad ran year round  New regions for farming, trade, conquest, and tourism  First corporations to become large state enterprises  1880s steel rails, coal production, depot construction  Transform American capitalism Powerful effects of railroads  Cities all over the west boom with the advent of the railroads  Manufacturing and growth of factories o Production and movement of goods  Refrigerated rail cars o Ex. Chicago, had cattle processed into meat products  Chicago producers were then able to send their goods east with the refrigerated cars  Pressured gov’ts into meeting their needs o Southern Pacific threatens LA  Railroads essential to enterprise  Creation of standard time zones o Pre railroads local clock struck noon when the sun is directly over head o Railroads trying to create time table o 1883 With no authorization from congress, railroads est. time zones  Cities adjusted to RR time  Reinforcement of racial segregation o Ida b wells “ladies car” o Plessy v ferguson Farming in the West  1870s and 1880s more acres put under cultivation out west then in the entire country in the previous 250 yrs.  Between 1860 – 1910, the number of farms tripled o Little house on the prarie  This is being fueled by Homestead act of 1862 o 80 million acres o offers cheap prices for land to encourage settlement in the west 2 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18  Railroad Agents travel internationally to recruit people to settle in the plains o Posters, propaganda  Claiming fertile lands and abundant water, good soil, temperate weather, wealth o Worked in coal mining industries  Part of industrializations o This is why there are random groups of foreign cultures in the plains  Allows farmers to ship their produce to the market The Best thing in the West?  Environmental difficulties o Weather unpredictable o Little rain o Water was scarce  Encounters with other people o Hispanics, Mexicans o Encroached on by white settlers The Second Industrial Revolution From agrarian  industrial  From a world of small farms and workshops to a world of wage labor  Profound and rapid economic transformation  The dream of economic independence becomes obsolete o New working class emerges  Work for wages  Face hard work and living conditions  Underpaid, overworked, under housed  Nationwide issue Population movement and growth  Urban pop. Increases 700% between 1865-1905 o Overcrowding, not enough houses o Sanitation issues, street is disgusting o Social issues  Hester St. picture 1902  1870-1920 o 11 million Americans move from the farm to city o 25 million immigrants arrive from overseas  These are the people that are going to fuel industrialization 3 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18 Video in Class Americans Farm  City  Machines replaced people’s work on the farm o People move to city o Scary for them to leave their world to a world that they do not know  Courageous  Crowds, noise, confusion, horrid smells  City was a primitive place o Waste everywhere, horse carcasses  Trollies, trains above the city, began to build the largest subway system in the world Immigrants  City  In 1900 1/3 of NY of foreign born  A lot immigrants found the same misery that they were trying to escape  Many Americans feared the immigrants  ½ million immigrate in 1900 o 1/3 went back home  From NY millions of immigrants moved West  Worked 12-16 hours days, 6 days a week, making about a $1 a day o If man of the family dies in the factory, the rest of the family is screwed Roots of the Industrial Revolution  Lowell mills 1820s-1830s o Textile mills in Lowell, Mass. o Used cotton from the slave south, then they manufactured the cloth and sold it  Factors that fueled the Ind Rev o Access to natural resources o Expansion of Agricultural production o Growing supply of labor o System of transportation and market for manufactured goods o Availability of capital for investment (you need $$ to pay for all of it)  Role of the Federat Gov’t o Homestead act – provides land for farming o Massive gov’t subsies to RRs o Tariff to protect American industry 4 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18   Profound Implication o by 1913 US producing 1/3 of industrial output  Industrialization fueled by people o Inventors, engineers, wealthy industrialists o Workers Immigration to the US  Colonies – 1870 o Majority northern white European Protestant  Traditional sources of immigration: Ireland, England, Germany, Scandinavia (Northern Europe)  New Immigrants 1880s – 1910s o Much greater ethnic and religious diversity o Southern and central Europe, Russia o Catholics and Jews  1890s- +50% from Italy, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires o Immigrants scrutinized o Americans construct them as “other”  Change in Immigration o New immigrants  Did not know English  Poorer than the previous influx of immigrants o 1882: 87% immigrant from N. and W. Europe  They like them o 19017: 81% from S. and E. Europe  They didn’t like them, too different  Rise of Nativism  Nativism is folks in America who are afraid of foreigners  Belief that foreigner post and serious threat to their culture o Anti – foreign sentiment fuels anti immigrant policies and immigrations restriction policies o All these people were white though  New immigrants belonging to “distinct races”, lower levels of civilization Nativism  Anti-Irish sentiment, 1876 5 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18  Cartoons suggested that immigrant were animals or on the same “level” as animals o New kind of racism, beyond black and white now o Based on religion and where you come from  Cartoon – wave of immigrants coming into America o Uncle Same running from them “Raff Immigration” o “Danger to American ideas and institutions” The working class  Substandard wages  Industrialist count on immigrant to do back-breaking labor for low wages  Factory system o Shift from workers as producers to workers as employee o Employees  Hired  Hourly wages  Paid for time spent, not quality o Mass production and de-skilling of labor Mass Production  Assembly line  One task over and over  Scientific management o Fredrick Taylor  Concluded that best way for a company to reduce cost is efficiency  Reduces a crew of 600 to 140 men o Efficiency o Time and $$ become equivalent  Workers as part of machine o Never see the finished product  New immigrants categorized as “other” Impact on Workers  Regulated by the clock  Workers could not decided when they wanted to work or when to rest o It was all decided for them, no independence  Strict rules and regulations o Ex. workers were not allowed to talk to each other when working  Bathroom breaks were limited  Machines and assembly lines reduced need for skilled workers o Workers are easily replaceable  Women 6 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18 o Between 18880-1900: 2.6 million  8.6 million women employed o $1.56 a week for 70 hours (men $7-10/week) o Women only allowed to work in certain sectors  Textile mills “nimble fingers”  Enforced what women can and cannot do  Most families cannot survive on one person working o So women of the family work o The idea of the male being the breadwinner justifies women getting paid 1/10 of what men are paid  Child Labor o From farm to factory o 1890: over 18% of children 10-15 yrs. old employed o Children did small tasks, run errands o Children get paid WAY less o Working conditions even worse  People who were desperate for money  binded their kid to factories Life for the Working Class  Economic insecurity  Majority desperately poor 12-16 hour working days Vs. Life for captain of industry  1890: richest 1% same total ?? goto ppt. Gilded Age Summer Cottages  Beautiful summer homes  Wealthy industrialists  Newport, RI The rich and poor  Tenements of NYC, 1 room for 7 people  0  100  outrageous income inequality Hazards of Industry  Industrial labor very dangerous  1880-1900: 35,000 workers died per year for factory and mine accidents  Repetitive tasks, high speed machinery o The slightest mistake  serious injury, no safety devices  1913: Despite safety devices, 25,000 die; 1 million injured o Acute suffering o Injured, you loose your job 7 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18 Video clip: Scofield Mine in Utah  County depended on coal for power  Most dangerous job of the world  Scofield mine disaster, worst in the history of the US o Over 200 men died Rise of the Labor Movement  Conditions for workers o Danger, uncertainty, crsuhing work loda o Deaths and injuries o Sickness or injury = fired o Avg. wage between 1870-1900 rose but still only $0.20 and hour  This gave rise to the union uprising  1877 Railroad Strike o Labor activism comes to national attention o Were facing their 3 wage cut, so they go on strike  Martinsburg, west Virginia o Strike lasts 45 days o Spread nationwide o Gov’t calls in the National Guard against their own people  To put down the strikes 1877 Railroad Strike cont.  Revolt of working men against low prices of labor  Businesses portray the striker as socialists, anarchists  A lot of violence erupts during the strike o Over people die  Strike leaders jailed Organizing workers: Capital vs. Labor  Uphill battle  Capital o The big money, people who have money o Incredible power o Priority: keep costs down o Unions “bad for business” o Many resources to fight labor  Fire union members/deny jobs to union organization  Yellow dog contract – worker promises to not join the union and if they do they will be fire  Blacklist of union members not to hire 8 Week Two: 06/13 – 06/18  Mix of native-born Americans and immigrant workers They did this because that mix is less likely to unite because of their differences  Break strikes – AA to break strikes  Good option for them because industry racist Organizing workers Labor  The people who are working, poor  Solidarity difficult to achieve  Obstacles within the labor pool o Instense racial differences between the unions o Temporary work o Skilled and unskilled workers o Native born v. immigrants  Union leaders create a sense of common purpose o They say the working class is producing America’s wealth o Break down ethnic divisions  John Mitchel, its just coal not foreign coal Knights of Labor  1869 Uriah Stephens  1879 Terence Powderly o 1884 100,000 members Haymarket affair  Throughout nation waves of strikes  May 1, 1886 May Day, labor unions fought for an 8 hour work days  May 3 - 4 strikers killed by police  May 4 – rally to protest killing and police brutality o Someone throws a bomb into crowd, police killed o Police shoot bystanders  Gov’ts strengthen police forces o Demise of the knights of labor 9


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