HIST 2057, Week 3 Notes
HIST 2057, Week 3 Notes HIST 2057
Popular in The United States From 1865 to the Present
Popular in History
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Wilson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Catherine Jacquet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The United States From 1865 to the Present in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 The Progressive Era Progressivism – wave of social reform and movement; 1890-1920 Includes temperance movement, movement to reform the city, social purity movement This call to bring about social, political change in American life Begins as a response to worst abuses of industrialization st o 1 on the agenda: clean up the nations cities o From there it grows to reduce poverty, labor- reform, child welfare, temperance, woman suffrage, anti-trust legislation See many successes Progressive Reformers: largely white, middle class, professionals o Found themselves upset with the corruption within businesses and the government, so they wanted to use the techniques that they learned as lawyers etc. to improve American life Mimic techniques used in Europe o Rein in the worst abuses of the industrial age o Moral response Cleaning up the nation’s cities Poverty, lack of sanitation, decomposing horses in the street, hazardous living cond. – garbage collection, street cleaning needed 1870-1900: urban pop grows from 10 to 30 million o Urban gov’ts could not find enough services for all the people Social reformers step in Tenement housing Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives 1890 o Police reporter for NY slum side of the city o Sees a lot of poverty Becomes a reformer How the Other Half Lives 1890: Studies Among the Tenements of NY o Americans “discover” poverty People are shocked o 1880: 37,000 tenements house 1.1 mil people in NYC o East Side Slums – 290,000 people per sq. mile Most densely populated city in the world at the time o “In a room not 13 ft. either way 12 men and 12 women, 2 or 3 in bunks in a sort of alcove, the rest on the floor” -Jacob Riis Room in a tenement, 5 cents a spot pictures on ppt. 1 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Rooms super overcrowded with people in a tenement o Exposes urban poverty o Provokes reaction and reform Becomes to be know as progressivism o NY State Tenement House Act 1901 Bans the construction of dark, poorly ventilated tenement building in the state Hull House: Settlement Houses Safe residences in poor neighborhoods For white people to investigate and improve the poverty cond. o Neighborhood people do NOT live in the settlement houses Settlement house First hand look at what needed to be changed Founded 1889, Jane Addams and Ellen Gate Starr Hull house started as one mansion and grew to 13 building by 1911 o Classes, playground, nursery, gymnasium, kindergarten, etc. o They wanted the Hull house to be a safe haven for residents in the neighborhood Impact of the Hull House o First settlement house o Give access and support to immigrants in the working class o Women that worked in the hull house go on to do social reforms of their own Jane Addams: Awesome Person from History Social reform, pacifist, suffrage leader, feminist, National Conference of Social Work president Est. national federation of settlements in 1911 Pres. of women’s international league for peace and freedom 1919-1929 First American women to win the Nobel peace prize in 1931 o Because of her commitment to pacifism and reform When she died people reacted as Mary Roet Smith had lost a wife Muckrakers “The shit stirrers” Indignant about the abuses of power and the poor conditions that the working class is living in Ida B Wells, Jacob Riis considered muckraking Journalists Targeted the food industry, political corruption, etc. like everyone 2 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Ida Tarbell, The History of Standard Oil 1902- 1904 o Rips apart the standard oil company Lincoln Steffen, The Shame of the Cities 1904 o Political corruption Upton Sinclair, The Jungle o Meat packing industry, based on fact although it is a novel o Chicago – Hog Butcher for the World o He wanted to expose the working conditions for the immigrants o People become concerned with the food that they are eaten Rats everywhere, workers with TB and spitting into the meat o Wasn’t until The Jungle was pub. that the gov’t investigate the food industry o Sinclair writes series of novels in 1905 6 months later major legislation ?? Pres. Teddy Roosevelt outraged in 1906 Threatens to releasing the results of the gross cond. Of food cond. To congress o Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 o Meat inspection Law He was mainly concerned with the poor working cond. “He aimed at the country heart but he hit the stomach” ?? Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Shirtwaists = women’s button up for work Factory occupied top 3 floors, 300 workers o Fire works out, try to escape, doors are locked on the outside Employers were concerned with stealing, bathroom breaks o Fire dept. comes, their ladder only reaches 6th floor o 138 women killed ?? Unraveled effect on public eye o Depicted the poor working cond. Major strikes for the shirtwaist o Finally state legislature passes safety codes US Expansion and Imperialism Military, Economic, and Colonial power overseas 3 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Turner Thesis Fredrick Jackson Turner 1893 – declared that the American Frontier is closed o Suggests that American energy requires an open field o People became concerned with the closing Kingdom of Hawaii ?? 1893 overthrow Queen Lili’ uokalani American sugar and plantation interests US business take precendence Annexation 1898 – Statehood 1859 No war but strong military presence The Spanish – American War War against Span empire o Arguing on going into war on behalf of the people who have been colonized by the span peoples ?? Cuba and the Philippines Cubans fought for 30 years for their independence from Spain o With the US’s help, the Cuban will finally win Why the US gets involved? Land=money o Commercial – Cuban rebellion disrupting trade, damaging American-owned sugar plantations o McKinley April 11, 1898 “in the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, and on behalf of endangered American interests” Splendid little war, defeat Spanish in 109 days rest on ppt. First Major Battle May 1, 1898 Manila Bay Commodore George Dewy Cuban Battlefront July 1, 1898 – San Juan Hill o TR and Rough Riders Armistice US and Spain signed Aug. 12, 1898 Treaty of Paris Dec. 1898 o Spain cedes Cuba, the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico o Us to pay Spain $20 million for territories 4 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 **know distinction btwn span war and philippines war Independence for the Philippines US – Philippine war, 1899-1902 McKinley On prayer and the Philippines McKinley really thought that e would be helping the Philippines Know McKinley 4 reasons o Cant return islands to Spain Cowardly, dishonorable o Can’t give to France or Spain Bad business, commercial interests o Can’t leave for themselves Video Philippines = gateway to market in China US is assuming that the Philippines need to be civilized o Assuming that they are unfit, weak military War in Philippines ?? Freedom fighter Emilio Aguinaldo o Philippines become US colony o Emilio APH Leader of Philippine rebel forces against Spain Exiled Hong Kong 1897 Returns to Manila May 19 1898 June 12 – declares Philippine Independence 1899 Proclaimed Pres. Of Philippine Republic o US refuses to recognize o Feb $ 1899 declares war on US o Hostilities “unjustly and unexpectedly” provoked by US Aguinaldo capture March 23, 1901 o Swears allegiance to the US War continues under Miguel Malavar o Surrender april 1902 o Philip become part of US Empire o Philip indep 1946 From Manifest Destiny to Empire Divinely ordained to take over and civilize 5 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Turner Thesis o “American energy will continually demand a wider field for it exercise” US Empire “a new appetite… on ppt. “ Race, racism and empire building nationalism based on white American supremacy Blacks a “female race” o “like the woman the black is deprived of political and scientific intelligence” Filipinos as savages o Origins of word “gook” o US soldiers refers Filipinos as “niggers” Scientific racism American Exceptionalism The idea that the US has a destiny unique among nations to foster democracy and civilization Josiah Strong, Our County: its Possible Future o Popularizes the idea of Anglo-Saxons idea of superiorism New stage of history – the final competition of the races Anglo-Saxons o Largest liberty o Purest Christianity o Highest civilization o Aggressive trait Cartoons – About American imperialism Oppression Vice Brutality Suppression o White men have the burden of purifying the savages of the Philippines, 1899 Pro Imperialism Teddy Roosevelt, Rough Rider o Bringing the savage to school o Probably Cuba, people in Cuba are animals o Pro imperialism The White Man’s Burden o Civilizing the world’s uncivilized, unfit, barbarous people o Assassination o Barbarism 6 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 o Rough rider killed by bows and arrows Transformation of territories to US civilization Cuban and Latin America US Economic Power numbers on ppt Platt Amendment 1903 1904 TR Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine st o 1 one said that the US would protect LA from European powers o 2 ndone said that the US has the unrestricted right to regulate LA affairs “Chronic wrongdoing would require intervention by some civilized nation” “In flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence” …US exercise an “international police power” o TR “speak softly and carry a big stick” The US will try to negotiate peacefully, but if you don’t cooperate then we will use military forces against you The US during the WWI Era (1914-1918) Civil Liberties and Woman Suffrage WWI 1914 assaination of Archeduke Franz Ferdinand o sets off change of events that eventually leads too WWI or the Great War Wilson asks for neutrality Sinking of Lusitania Wilson 2nd campaign promises: peace, prosperity, and preparedness (military) o Peace advocacy in the US o Women’s Peace Parade - Aug. 1914, NYC Women’s Peace Party Founded Jan 1915, by APH, Jane Addams o 20,000 members o resolve conflict in Europe through peaceful negociated means 7 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 US entry in WWI 1916 – German submarine warfare March 1917 – Zimmerman telegram o Germany is saying that you can’t get your land back ?? Wilson: “The world must made safe for democracy” April 6, 1917 – War Resolution passes Pacifism loses support o Accusations of political disloyalty Jeannette Rankin First woman in the US house of reps Anti war o “I felt the first time the first woman had a chance to say no to war she should say it” Angelic, feminine symbol to save the nation (Political Cartoon) Propaganda Committee on Public Info o Department of Pictorial Publicity 2500 diff posters; 20 million copies Wilson uses magazine illustrators to create the posters o Used posters to recruit soldiers, funds for war, and women Women being a nurse, red cross, showing patriotism War Years Over 100,000 Americans die in battle o 10 million died in total from all the different countries US allies – French and British Germans realized that the only way that they could beat the West was by sea o Submarine warfare Repression of civil liberties Idealistic language of democracy and freedom v. most intense repression of civil liberties the nation had ever know o Fed. Gov’t enacts laws to restrict freedom and speech in over 100 yrs Espionage Act 1917 – prohibited spying and interfering with the draft, false statements that could interfere with war efforts Sedition Act 1918 – crime to make spoken or written statement that are critical of the gov’t, the war efforts 8 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Stifling and censorship of any opposition Attack socialists, anarchists, labor radicals, anti-war activists Prosecutions Charles Schenck o Charge with espionage and sedition o Protested conscription of soldiers, US war efforts John White o Compared German atrocities to US atrocities in Philippine War o Said what the Germans were doing murdering women and children was no worse than what the US did in the Philippine war Radical journals suppressed Eugene v. Debs o Anti war speech o Founder of IWW, couty’s most outspoken and well known radical at the time o Tireless advocate for working class o Convicted of anti war speech, advocated nonviolence and pacifism Sentenced to 10 yrs for sedition expression o Runs for President from jail – gets 1 million votes Releases 1921 Repression of civil liberties Gov’t charges over 2,000 people under Espionage and Sedition Acts o About half are convicted Anti-Communist fears The Red Scare o 1917 Bolshevik Rev. (the Reds) o Vladimir Lenin o World communism, end of private property Rise in American socialism o Debs ran on socialist party ticket 9 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Palmer Raid 1918-1920 ? o Attorney General Palmer Sets up federal bureau ?? o 700 radicals are deported back to Europe Who is an American? Tensions rising when immigrants are coming in from Europe o Subject of major public concern The “race problem” o People who look to us as white, are considered different races o 1911 Dictionary of Races of Peoples Anglo-Saxon, Hebrews, N. Italians, S. Italians Many people were pushing for Americanization of the races o Homogeneous nat. culture o New immigrants stuck in “old world ways” o Focus on children of immigrants Anti-German crusade o 9 million people of German descent in US o Americans liked German culture until the war broke out Hamburger - Liberty sandwich, liberty cabbage, freedom fries Boston symphony gets jailed because he insists on playing German compositions o US cannot appreciate anything remotely related to Germany o 1919 – laws restricting the teaching of foreign language Increased immigration restrictions – 1920s War and woman suffrage National Woman’s Party o Founded 1916, Alice Paul (APH) and Lucy Burns split from the NAWSA o Argue the constitutional amendment o Rising militancy and radical actions o More militant wing of the woman’s suffrage movement o Picket the White House Jan 1917 (pre-US entry) First women to picket the white house in the US and during the war. Unheard of and controversial Continue until June 1919 Called themselves the Silent Sentinels Background 10 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 o National American Woman Suffrage Associations Formed 1890 – the two movements rejoin Struggle for suffrage since mid-19 century Suffrage for women started in 1848 Suffrage movement splits into two organizations th o Does v. Doesn’t support 15 Amendment APH: Alice Paul 1885-1977 England 1907-1910 Brings radical tactics back to US o Crazy to people in US because it is white women who are being radical, their place was in the home, it was unfeminine Works with Pankhursts o Women who chained themselves to gates of Parliament, super radical Involved with NAWSA Full time suffrage activist in 1912 Woman Suffrage Parade - March 3, 1913 Organized by Alice Paul 8,000 women in parade, white horse 500,00 spectators o Happened the day before Wilson’s inauguration Because they knew a lot of people would be there and sent a msg to Wilson “We Demand an Amendment to the US Constitution Enfranchising the Women of the Country” Most significant and pub. parade on a t national level One of first demonstrations in the capital for any movement Wore white robes and sashes that had the states that they were from and their school o Now pageants were sashes? Lol AA women were forced to march at the back of the parade o A lot of racism in the suffrage movement o Ida B Well marched in the middle, refused to go to the back Men and people in the crowd attacked the marchers, throwing things at them o Police provided zero protection and sometimes attacked marchers too o Many injured 11 Week 3: 06/20 – 06/24 Kaiser Wilson Kaiser = leader of Germany Use Wilson’s war rhetoric for their own purposes Point over women fight overseas for others freedom, but they didn’t have full citizenship themselves NWP members in prison June 1917 – NWP members jailed for “obstructing traffic” Oct. 1917 – Alice Paul sentenced 7 months Paul and many others sent to the Occoquan Workhouse o Paul in solitary confinement, nothing to eat but bread and water o Hunger strike Force feeding 3 times a day for 3 weeks o Sleep deprivation, electric lights form guards Prison Conditions Worm-infested food Unsanitary Nov. 15, 1917 o 40 guards beat the protestors in jail Beatings, chained o Knocked out on iron bed o Heart attack o Kicked, choked, dragged This gains traction for women’s suffrage movement by media 1918 Wilson finally supports Women’s suffrage Constitutional Amendment June 1919, 2/3 of Congress in favor Goes to the states for ratification o 36 states needed to ratify amendment o Final battle comes down to Tennessee Harry Burn (Republic, anti-suffrage) Mom note “don’t forget to be a good boy” o 1920 white women get the right to vote 12
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