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Introduction to American Politics, Week three notes

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Introduction to American Politics, Week three notes PSC 101

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > PSC 101 > Introduction to American Politics Week three notes
Lindsey Notetaker

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These are the lecture notes from chapter three and some textbook notes and vocabulary that go along with the chapter
Intro American Politics
Class Notes
federalism, american, Politics
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 101 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Introduction to American Politics -Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 3: Federalism  Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes  Federalism is the separation of power between a national and state government  Expressed and implied power are toward the national government o Expressed powers are specifically stated in the constitution o Implied powers are not specifically stated but recognized from the interpretation  of expressed powers   Interstate commerce­ agreements between states that need to be approved  by the federal government  States can’t place tariffs on other states  Full faith and credit clause makes each states recognize actions of other states  There has been a change in federalism with America o Dual federalism (1789–1930)  Powers are specific and clear what the jobs of the national and state  government is to do  o Cooperative federalism (1930­1963)  Began with the New Deal   The national and state government jobs are blended and they work  together   National government tends to go directly to the local governments  with funding rather than the states because states do not like to  cooperate  o Regulated federalism(1963­1981)  Lots of the states are regulated by the federal government by their grants  and mandates o New federalism (1981­present)  It attempted to give more power to the states  Some say that it is lingering   The national government is still imposing on the states government  No Child Left Behind  The money issued by the federal government has increased significantly since the 1960s Categorical grants have VERY specific terms for the states to receive the money  Block grants give the states little or no regulation on how they can spend the money they  receive Introduction to American Politics -Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Unfunded mandates make the states have to change something to a national level but the  states receive no funding o These are not always followed by the states if they choose not to accept the  money Federal government has increased  o Since 9/11 it caused the federal government see how important it is to be available to help in time of crisis Textbook Notes  Federalism and unitary system are different   No two federalism governments are the same  The 10  amendment was put in for the antifederalist to demonstrate that there was a  compromise   State governments make laws that are needed specifically for their people   Must be licensed in a state to do certain jobs  o Lawyer  o Doctor  o Plumber   Article IV was intended to promote unity  o States have to recognize actions and decisions from other states   Restraining orders in one state go for them in any state  Interracial marriages was a big debate over the states recognizing them     Loving v. Virginia (1967) made each state have to recognize  interracial marriages even if they did not approve     Windsor v. the United States (2013) said that states did not have  to recognize same sex marriage  o This is later shot down and the supreme court rule that  same sex marriage is legal in all states  State governments were once stronger than national o Not until mid 1937 did the federal government start to gain more power but still  not much  o Table shows the policy areas that the governments are in charge of up to 937 but  it still stands pretty true today National Government State Government  Local Government  Internal improvements  Property laws Adaptation of state laws to local conditions  Introduction to American Politics -Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Subsidies  Estate and inheritance laws Public works Tariffs  Commerce laws  Contracts for public works  Public land disposal Banking and credit laws  Licensing of public accommodations  Patents  Corporate laws Assessable improvements Currency Insurance laws Basic public services Education laws  Land use laws  Family laws Many more  McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) questioned if the national government could have a  national bank o No they are not allowed to  Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)  established what would later be known as “interstate commerce”  United States v. Lopez (1995) showed that Congress overstepped their power and could not have a federal law on hand guns near schools  Printz v. United States (1997) said that it was unconstitutional to require every state to  do background checks for hand guns  Government needs to aid when state government cannot cope o Great Depression o Franklin D. Roosevelt created the New Deal which aimed to help states cope after the Depression  Government grants have increased  o It was at 221 issued and jumped to 379 issued  o In 1950 the total of the grants was $2.3 billion and in 2014 the total of the grants  was $607 billion  Federal government gives grants typically to local governments because they do not trust  the state governments to follow through with them  Congress was over using the unfunded mandates and costing the states too much o Stricter limits now  The states want more power but the national government does not trust the states to use  funds correctly  o Ex. In Mississippi the national government had given the state a grant to help with child care and the government used it to get new furniture for their office and  designer salt and pepper shakers instead Introduction to American Politics -Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) o Nixon and Reagan attempted to create more power for the states with their New  Federalism Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical   Federalism: a system of government in which power in divided, by a constitution,  between a central government and regional government  Unitary System: a centralized government system in which lower levels of government  have little power independent of the national government   Expressed Powers: specific powers granted by the constitution to congress (Article I,  Section 8) and the president (Article II)  Implied Powers: powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I,  Section 8, of the constitution; such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied  through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers  Necessary and Proper Clause: Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which provides  congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out its  expressed powers  th  Reserved Powers: powers, derived from the 10  amendment to the constitution, that are  not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states  Police Power: power reserved to the states government to regulate the health, safety, and  morals of its citizens   Concurrent Powers: authority possessed by both state and national governments, such  power to levy taxes   Full Faith and Credit Clause: provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the constitution,  requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take  place in another state    Privileges and Immunities Clause: provision, from Article IV, Section 2, of the  constitution, that a state can’t discriminate against someone from another state or give its  own residents special privileges    Home Rule: power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its  own affairs Introduction to American Politics -Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Dual Federalism: the system of government that prevailed in the United States from  1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the  federal and state governments  Commerce Clause: Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which delegates to congress  the power “to regulate with foreign nations, and among several states and with the Indian  tribes”; this clause was interpreted by the supreme court in favor of National power over  the economy   States’ Rights: the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the  national government; this principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War      Grants­in­aid: programs through which congress provides money to state and local  governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the  federal government     Categorical Grants: congressional grants given to state and localities on the condition  that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law     Project Grants: grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals  to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a completive basis      Formula Grants: grants­in­aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of  federal funds a state or local government will receive      Cooperative Federalism: a type of federalism existing since the New Deal Era in which  grants­in­aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without  commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals; also known as intergovernmental  cooperation      Regulated Federalism: a form of federalism in which congress imposes legislation on  states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards      Preemption: the principle that allows the national government to override state or local  actions in certain policy areas; in foreign policy, the willingness to strike first in order to  prevent an enemy attack     Unfunded Mandate: regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose cost on  state and local government for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government      Devotion: policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or  passing it down to a lower level of government, such as national government to state or  local government  Introduction to American Politics -Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)     Block Grants: federal grants­in­aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the  funds are spent      New Federalism: attempts by president Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states  through block grants     General Revenue Sharing: the process by which one unit of government yields a  portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established  formula; revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to  state governments     Redistributive Programs: economic policies designed to control the economy through  taxing and spending, with the goal of benefiting the poor 


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