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Chemistry 115: Lecture 2&3 Notes

by: Cayla Haupt

Chemistry 115: Lecture 2&3 Notes CHM 11500 - 002

Marketplace > Purdue University > Science > CHM 11500 - 002 > Chemistry 115 Lecture 2 3 Notes
Cayla Haupt
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About this Document

These are the notes taken during Dr. Ren's lectures on Nuclear Chemistry during the first two weeks of classes.
General Chemistry
Dr. Roy Tasker/ Dr. Tong Ren
Class Notes
Lecture, 2, 3, Chem, Chemistry, #chem1151, chem115,, Nuclear Chemistry, nuclear, beta, decay, particles, lecture2, Lecture Notes, lecture3, General Chemistry, chemistry115




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cayla Haupt on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 - 002 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Roy Tasker/ Dr. Tong Ren in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Cayla Haupt Dr. Tong Ren Chem 115 Nuclear Chemistry Lecture August 25th,­ September 1st 2016 I. Nuclear Chemistry is All Around Us A. Americium is in smoke detectors. B. Fluorine is in our bodies. C. Thorium is in gas lamps. D. Plutonium in rocketships. E. Uranium glows in the dark. II. Structure of the Neutral Atom A. Mostly empty space. B. Nucleons: protons+neutrons. C. Nuclide: The specific composition of a nucleus. 1. Often designated by its mass number. D. Positive nucleus is approximately10 ❑−14❑ m. E. Proton 1. In nucleus. ❑❑¿ 2. Abbreviated  p ¿ 3. Has a positive charge. F. Neutron 1. In nucleus. 2. Abbreviated  n❑0❑ 3. Has no charge. G. Electrons 1. Occupy the electron cloud around nucleus. ❑ 2. Abbreviated  e❑¿ ¿ 3. Negative charge. III. Isotopes A. Atoms of the same element have the same number of protons. B. Isotope: The same element with different numbers of neutrons. ❑A❑ C. X Z         X=Element; A= Mass Number (# of protons +  neutrons); Z=Atomic Number (# of protons) IV. Types of Decay ❑4 ❑ A. α ­ a helium nucleus, ₂ He ❑ 1. Can travel through thin mica, but skin or paper  stops alpha decay. B. β ­ An electron  ❑−10e 1. Can travel through thin mica and skin or paper, but  is stopped by thin aluminium ❑1 C. γ ­ A photon, no charge, no mass; neutron0 ❑ n 1. Can travel through thin mica, skin or paper or thin  aluminium, but is stopped by thick led. V. Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions A. Chemical Reactions 1. Identity is retained by atoms 2. Only electrons, and usually only outermost  electrons, are involved in the reaction. 3. Raising temp. Increases Rx (*Reactions) rate. 4. Comparatively small E (*Energy) input or output. 5. Mass is conserved.  B. Nuclear Reactions 1. Atoms can change from one element to another 2. Mostly protons and neutrons are involved. Electrons are insignificant. 3. Δ ’s (*Changes) in temp. do NOT affect Rx  rates. 4. Rx involve gigantic Δ ’s in E. 5. Huge  Δ ’s in E are accompanied by measurable Δ ’s in mass      (mc ❑2❑ ) VI. Balancing Nuclear Rx’s A. Conserve mass # (A) 1. The sum of protons+neutrons in the products = sum  of protons+neutrons in the reactants 2. ❑ 235❑U +  ❑ ❑❑1n → ❑❑139❑Cs   ❑ 96❑ 92 0 55 37 Rb + 2 ❑ 0❑1n 3. 235 + 1 = 138 + 96 + 2*1 B. Conserve atomic number (Z) 1. Sum of nuclear charges in products = Sum of  nuclear charges in reactants. 2. ❑ 235❑U +  ❑ ❑❑1n → ❑❑139❑Cs   ❑ 96❑ 92 0 55 37 Rb + 2 ❑ 0❑1n 3. 92 + 0 = 55 + 37 + 2*0 VII. Predicting Types of Nuclear Decay A. On a Neutron number vs. Protron number on a standard x/y plane,  n=p is a directly proportional baseline (band of stability) for determining all types  of decay. 0 ❑❑¿ B. n  >  p  too large ¿ 1. Increases the number of protons 2. Shows  β decay: Neutron decays to protons plus a beta particle. ❑ ❑¿ 0 C. p > n too large ¿ 1. Increases neutrons or reduce protons. 2. Shows positron decay or electron capture D. Above the band of stability = Alpha decay 1. Z>83 E. F. Which nuclides are stable? 1. ❑ 1660Nd ,  ❑ 419K ,  Argon−32 ❑ , 92❑ 16 ❑ 46Pd ,  ❑ 8 2. N:    106         29            14                 46         8 3. P:      60          19            18                 46         8        4.  Unstable  Unstable   Unstable    Unstable   Stable VIII. Measuring Radioactive Decay A. Measures activity: disintegrations over time, B. An inert gas that conducts electricity when a particle or proton of  radiation temp. Makes the gas conductive by ionizing it. IX. Nuclear Half­Life A. Vary dramatically B. C. MEMORIZE: N 0 1. ln = kt N 1 2. kt = ln2 = 0.693 2 D. What percent of the original❑ ❑4  remains in the heartwood of  bristlecone pine that is 3000 years old? 1.   ❑ ❑4   → ❑ N4 2. ln{ N 0 /N} = kt35 3. ln2=kt x❑ 4. y= e 5. lnx=y 6. t = 5730 y 1/2 7. 70% X. Fuel Assembly A. Contains fuel rods­enriched U (2%) as UO2 pelleta 1. Packed into a pressurized tube with He and springs B. Has rings on the sides of the pellets of heat transfer C. Assemblies have different shapes, but contain ~18 rods each in a  top and bottom half. 1. Two halves joined, expansion of fuel rods directed  towards center of the assembly. XI. Nuclear Reactions­ Fission A. Fission: Production of lighter nuclei by the decomposition of a  heavier nucleus. Often, but not always, produced when a heavier nucleus captures a neutron.  235❑ 1 B. One of many examples in a nuclear reactor❑ 92U + ❑ 0 → 87 146 1 ❑ 35 + ❑ 57 La + 3❑ n0 Manufacture of tritium Manufacture of tritium 6 1 4 3 ❑ 3i + ❑ 0 → ❑ 2e + ❑ 1 . XII. Nuclear Reaction­Neutron Capture A. Neutron Capture: Capture of a neutron by a nucleus giving an  isotope with a mass number one unit higher. B. Neutron capture builds heavier isotopes. C. Plutonium forms in a series of Rx several of which involve neutron capture. D. Other neutron capture events involving plutonium lead to new  nuclides 239 1 240 0 1. ❑ 94+❑ n 0 → ❑ 95Am+❑ e −1 XIII. Nuclear Reactions­ Fusion A. Fusion: Production of a heavier nucleus by combination of lighter  nuclei 1. ❑ 1+❑ H 1 → ❑ 2e+❑ n 0


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