HIST 2057 week 5
HIST 2057 week 5 HIST 2057
Popular in The United States From 1865 to the Present
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Wilson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Catherine Jacquet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see The United States From 1865 to the Present in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Week 4 /5 World War II The Road to War 1930s – increasing political tensions Worldwide depression Rise of fascist governments know these?? o Dictatorship o Authoritarian political ideology o Single party state o Nationalism o Militarism 1933 – Hitler’s National Socialist Party (Nazi) o Consolidates control over the state o Massive armament campaign o Deficit spending 1936 – German depression over Benito Mussolini (Italy) US neutrality o Neutrality Acts 1935 and 1936 o America was trying to stay out of WWII congress passed the acts 1 said the US could not sell arms to any countries and the citizens could not travel by other countries boat Italy invaded Ethiopia, by law US could not sell them arms, but the act did not include raw materials, oil, iron 1936- barred gov’ts from private loan and credits but still didn’t restrict selling raw material 1937 – restricted sale of loans and arms of nations that are having a civil, Spanish civil war Britain and France reluctant to respond Munich Conference Sept. 1938 o Allow annexation of the Sudetenland o Policy of Appeasement Neville Chamberlain “Peace in Our Time” Hitler “Our enemies are small fry. I saw them in Munich” Post WWI GB and France did not want to get in another war Adopted policy of appeasement to Germany o Use diplomacy and comprise to work out problems among other nations instead of threats or violence This approach did not work with Germany 1 Week 4 /5 Germany wants to expand into central and eastern Europe = MAIN GOAL 1. Hitler expands into Eastern Europe (were communism was growing) a. GB and France look the other war, don’t want war b. 1938 Germany takes Austria and Sudetenland (boarder Czechoslovakia, Austria and Germany) i. Now there is no buffer between Czech and Germany c. 1939 – Germany invades Poland GB and France declare war on Germany United States from Isolation to Intervention Isolation Climate of Isolation during the 1930s FDR pledges neutrality Most Americans did not want to go to war o Memory of WWI Focus of domestic affairs o Respect for Hitler o Anti-Semitism in the US Shift Warring nations need guns Sept. 1939 – Germany invades Poland o Congress passes new neutrality act o Allows for belligerent nations to but US arms US military build up – 50,000 war planes Blitzkrieg o Early 1940 – Netherland and Belgium o May 10, 1940 Attack France. Paris captures within 6 weeks Paris surrendered June 14, 1940 German Advancement Battle of Britain o Summer and Autumn 1940 – bombing of British cities o London bombing raid begins Sept. 7, 1940 Bombed for 57 consecutive days Shift continued… May 1940 o Increase spending on national defense o Send surplus arms to Britain FDR approves first peacetime draft in US history 50 naval destroyers to Great Britain US sympathetic to nations fighting the Axis Powers (Germany Italy, Japan) 2 Week 4 /5 Lend-Lease Act 1941 August 1941 – FDR and Churchill meet o Atlantic Charter o US commitment to British victory, German defeat Intervention Attack on Pearl Harbor o Dec. 7, 1941 “The day the will live in infamy” o USS Arizona, USS Nevada o 2,403 dead; 1,178 injured *link on ppt. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=WqNY88Amuzw Did FDR know? A date which will live infamy – Dec. 7, 1941 US Declaration of War Dec. 8, 1941 o House vote 388 to 1 o Japan attacks Malaya, Hong Kong, Philippines, Guam, Midway Islands Dec. 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declare war on the US (Tripartite Pact) All-powerful Axis Powers War on two fronts o Pacific theater Iwo Jima March 1945 o European theater Allied invasion of Normandy – D-day: June 6, 1944 1942 Axis at the height of its power o Pacific: Japan destroyed US naval fleet o Dutch East Indies, Philippines July 1941 – operation Barbosa SU allies with US Big 3 – US, SU, Britain ?? The Holocaust Mass killings begin June 1941 o Murders well underway by 1942 Murder of Jews, political radicals, homosexuals, disables, Roma gypsies 3 Week 4 /5 6 million Jews murdered; millions of others murdered Late 1941, deportation of Jews to extermination camps By May 1945, 2 of every 3 Jews in Europe murdered o Holocaust Memorial Museum Not just specific to Nazi, Germany Hitler drew ideas from US and Britain ways o Wanted to expand the German living place o Creating the “perfect” race Eugenics ?? In CA they used eugenic policies to sterilize the disabled from reproducing ideas spread to Germany, and they were “inspired” Grand Alliance Big Three – FDR, Churchill, and Stalin o United States, Britain, Soviet Union US and Britain not strong enough to attack o $11 billion in food, trucks, supplies, etc. to Soviets o Soviets the only force battling Axis Powers on the continent Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943 o Soviets push Germans westward Allies counteroffensive o North Africa, Nov. 1942 – May 1943 o Normandy June 6, 1944??? D-day Germany on the defensive Allies driving Germans westward o Paris liberated Aug. 1944 o Sept. – Germans out of Belgium and France Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 1944 o Germany’s final defensive o Clear at this point that the allies are going to win April 30, 1945 Hitler commits suicide May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders Ending the war in the Pacific ??? Truman president – Apr. 1945 The Manhattan Project o Top secret building of the atomic bomb o 1942 University of Chicago o $2 billion, 120,000 people 4 Week 4 /5 First bomb dropped/tested in New Mexico, July 16, 1945 3 weeks after successful test bomb, Truman orders bomb to be dropped in Japan o Truman was trying to force Japan into a surrender instead of losing thousands of American soldiers The Impact of the Atomic Bomb Hiroshima Aug. 6, 1945 o Mainly civilian city o 4 square miles instantly and completely devastated o 66,000 killed count was based on bodies that they could find, in actuality it was higher o 69,000 injured o Some vaporize instantly o Horrible disfigurement o Burns, radiation Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945 o Industrial city, military site that made “sense” o 1.5 square miles totally destroyed o 39,000 dead, 1/3 of the Nagasaki population o 25,000 injured Blast destroys everything within 1 mile of center Over 25% of pop killed instantly Another 25% seriously injured Majority of deaths caused by burns One mile out from center – 50% mortality Dropping of the Atomic Bomb marks the beginning of the Atomic Age, which pushes us into the Cold War End of War Japan surrenders August 10, 1945 Formal agreement signed Dec. 2, 1945 The Atomic Age o Fear of nuclear attacks Time of great death and destruction o 60-80 million dead 38-55 million civilians 22-25 million soldiers Cities in ruins o Cologne, Germany o Warsaw, Poland o Dresden Germany 5 Week 4 /5 WWII Destruction Soviet Union loses 23 million (13-14% of their population) Holocaust kills 11 million US losses = 400,000 military; 11,000 civilians o US losses smaller comparatively o US escapes war without any major destruction at all WWII Transformative US role in world affairs o Neutral isolationist interventionist world power o 1939-1945 FDR lead role in Grand Alliance American power will endure US and USSR as world superpowers Sets the stage for the Cold War The United States during WWII A look at the home front US Home Front during WWII US sees the war as quite an energized event WWII massive boost to the economy o Consumer goods Manufacture of military goods Weapons Military crafts Tires for planes, jeeps, trucks Demand for labor Access to high-paying jobs for women and minorities o Women go from marginal to basic labor supply Women had previously been told that they were not suited for industrial jobs o “Do the job he left behind” o Rosie the Riveter “We Can Do It!” Propaganda posters This is not your job, this is his job, but you can do the job for now Glamour Girls of 1943 Women working on the assembly lines, industries Instead of baking cakes, sewing a dress, she is making airplane parts Transferable household skills o Rosie video 6 Week 4 /5 Really felt like they were Rosie They were making the livelihood for their families Rosie is more than just one story Rosie however does not represent the majority of the women in the workforce Women in the Workforce Only 16% of women workers in defense plants o Only 4.4% of skilled jobs held by women 6 million women enter workforce for the first time o Increase of 57% 400,000 African-American women leave domestic service for industrial jobs o Industrial = higher paying jobs than domestic jobs 7 million women move to war production areas o Southern Cal, places with factories Federal gov’t fund childcare o 130,000 preschoolers and 320,000 school-aged children at peak of program o Allowed the women to work Japanese-American Interment Feb. 1942, Executive Order 9066 o 9066 – gives the war department the authority to intern Japanese in the US o 2 months after Pearl Harbor 112,000 foreign-born and Japanese-Americans o Issei: 1 generation Japanese nationals o Nisei: 2 ndgeneration (US citizens) rd o Sansei: 3 generation (US citizens) Orders those living in CA, Oregon, or Washington to move to the West 2/3 of those relocated were American citizens Order of Exclusion o Posted in public to notify people that they had less than a week to pack up their belonging and be sent to an internment camp Internment camps ?? o No running water, shared bathroom, former horse stables, one light bulb, food sucked Tanforan Assembly Center o Race track converted to hold thousands of Jap families, they were not allowed to leave o Lived in horse stables 7 Week 4 /5 Internment Germans and Italians interned on individual basis Japanese – interned as a group o Automatically suspect despite any evidence o Japanese nationals and Japanese-Americans living in Hawaii were not detained. Why not?? The Hawaiian economy could not function without Jap labor In the other states, other Americans were happy for them to leave because it eliminated competition Violation of civil liberties o No due process, no court hearings Supreme Court refuses to intervene o “The gravest violation to civil liberties since the end of slavery.” How can this happen in the USA? o White anger at Japan’s sneak attack (Pearl Harbor) o Fear that west coast cities could go under enemy attack o Long-standing racism against Japanese “A Jap’s a Jap” – General DeWitt Deep seeded racism and nativism “The Japanese race is an enemy race” – Chief of Westerns Defense Command o Economic competition Fred Korematsu – Awesome Person from History ?? Refuses to present himself for internment (22 yrs. old) Arrested and incarcerate o “Jap spy arrested in San Leandro” Incarcerated for 2.5 months o Northern California ACLU o San Fran national prison Challenges the exclusion order “The internment was wrong. We didn’t do anything disloyal” Appealed while in the camp and it finally reached the Supreme Ct. Korematsu v. US 1944 o Court uphold legality of internment o “Koretmatsu was not excluded from the Military Area because of hostility to him or his race.” o Lost case, devastated o 1983 brings case up to Civil rights lawyers and won, rule that it was unconstitutional 8 Week 4 /5 “Are we Americans or not? Are we citizens of the country?” Jap-American citizen, born in 1919 in CA Him and his gf go inland to Nevada to escape Nevada When he is finally freed he is handcuffed and taken to Tanforan Topaz concentration camp in Utah, “Jewel in the Desert” Loyalty? 25% of internees swore allegiance to the US Profound ambivalence o Betrayed by the US gov’t o 6,000 renounce US citizenship 20,000 from camps join armed forces 13,000 from Hawaii 442 ndregional combat team o Most decorate unit of its size o Congressional medal of honor, 47 distinguished service crossed, 350 silver stars, +3600 purple hearts 1988 Congress issues apology o Symbolic payment to $20,000 to the surviving internees Sample quiz questions: Who was at the Munich Conference? Hitler, Mussolini, Daladier, Chamberlain Germany, Italy, France, England During WWII, women were able to enter the paid labor force for the first time. False, women were technically allowed to enter the labor force First time women had access to industrial jobs The US and the SU had an easy and comfortable alliance during WWII False, only common goal they had was to defeat Germany Marriage of convenience, communism v capitalism 1939 Germany and USSR have a non aggression pact? 9
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