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HIST 2057, week 1

by: Taylor Wilson

HIST 2057, week 1 HIST 2057

Taylor Wilson
GPA 3.5

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Reconstruction, Jim Crow Laws
The United States From 1865 to the Present
Catherine Jacquet
Class Notes
jimcrow, TheReconstructionEra
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Wilson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Catherine Jacquet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see The United States From 1865 to the Present in History at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Week One: 06/6 – 06/12 19 Century – 1800s 6t From Reconstruction to Jim Crow (1865-1877)  3 keys issues for the union o how to restore the union o how to legislate the re-entry of the southern states o what do you do with all the newly freed men and women? (ex-slaves) First Phase: Presidential constructions (1865-1867) Second Phase: Radical Reconstruction (1867-1877) Est. of the Freedman’s Bureau  facilitates the transition of African americans from slavery to freedom  help fund and support schools  ultimately benefits hundreds of African americans (AA)  find more services Black Codes  Deny AA the right to vote, to hold public office, serve on jury’s, bear arms  Exclude from black from having own business ??  Involuntarily apprenticed to white folks AA had great dissatisfaction with Johnson’s Reconstruction Reconstruction act of 1867 “……” on ppt  White folks were not happy with the Act Republicans in 1800s = abolitionists (help free slaves), anti slavery, free labor, the political and economic interests of the free north. Democrats 1800s = White southerners that support of the white slavery elite, pro slavery, no black democrats Northerners that go South = “Carpet baggers” Sympathetic Southerners (white southerners that are seen as traitors) = “Scalawags” AA do not control reconstruction politics  60% ?? hold office during the reconstructions era – huge impact that they could not participate Freedman’s Bureau  Help arbitrate legal dispute Civil Rights Act of All persons that were born in the US regardless of race, color, or previous condition Week One: 06/6 – 06/12 13th amendment – abolishes slavery 14 amendment – assure basic right and equality under the law **test 15 amendment – no state can discriminate voting rights based on race All states must accept the amendments in order to re-enter the union Claiming Freedom – what newly freed were concerned with  Education  Work  Family Relates to lost friends ad assignment* Opposition to Reconstruction by White Southerners  Some white folks did not view AA as even human  Fear of loss of power  Loosing money, economic shift  Couldn’t accept the idea as former slaves as now free people who could vote and take part in the law Triumphs of Reconstruction  Unprecedented era of political activity by AA  Confederate states under republican control  New state constitutions - first …? o Free public education o Equality of civil and political rights o Abolished some antebellum (before war) practices  Ex. whipping, imprisonment for debt significant resistance by white folks Reign of Terror  Specific societies est. by getting AA out of politics  Widespread violence  Klu Klux Kan Tennessee 1866 o Those AA that acquired land o Challenged white supremacy  becomes so out of control Congress steps in Enforcement Acts of 1870, 1871  Allowed government soldiers to take action against the violence Resurgent of violence Compromise of 1877  Effectively end the reconstruction era  Victorious Democrats – “Redeemers” Week One: 06/6 – 06/12 o Want to re-deem the south from the corruption, the misgovernment, and AA control o Redeemers, rich land owers, business owners, southern wing of democrats  Deal is struck with FL, La, and GA  Reconstructions historical process still continues o Republicans controlled south o AA had significant political power o Federal gov’t accepted the right of protecting equal right of all citizens Exam Prep 1 Short answer : who what why its important Compromise of 1877 It comes down to 3 states to accept the amendment, FL, GA and LA. Federal government compromised with these “rules”. Important because Deal btwn rep and demo. republicans pulled federal troops and formerly ended reconstruction, power shit to the south Sample Quiz Questions: The Reconstruction Act of 1867 – followed Presidential Reconstruction The KKK – targeted black southerners, targeted white southern republicans (abolitionists, scalawags), was founded in Tennessee Lecture 2: Free Labor = labor of men who are free, not unpaid labor The time period after reconstruction is known a needier ? Redeemers want to redeem the south from the horrors, merchants, white money, southern men  Undoing of the changes of reconstruction  Impact public schools o Literacy rate of whites decreases o Even lower for blacks  Rise of convict labor o Laws that authorize arrest for unemployment  Imprisonment in south rises  Prisons rented out convict labor  Essentially a way to re-enslave people  Impact black farmers Week One: 06/6 – 06/12 o Sharecropping becomes dominate way of farming/agriculture in the south  Land owner holds power, leases land to farmer (black or poor white), the owner is in charge of everything but the farmer does the work and gets a percentage of the crop at the end of the year  Sharecroppers find their way into debt  Matt Brown on ppt. (white farmer)  Decline of black politics o Political opportunities become more restricted, meant to eliminate the black folks  Poll tax – fee that everyone had to pay to be eligible  Literacy tests  Grandfather clause, outlowed by supreme cout  Voter must be able to demonstrate and explain the constitution  1890-1960 eliminate the black vote – How? o Voters turnout plunges to >34% in southern states o 1940 – only 3% of adult black southerners were registered to vote Segregation  Disenfranchisement – not able to make own decisions, no power within their lives  1883 Civil Rights Cases  1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson, New Orleans o Homer Plessy is jailed because sat in white train section th o 1/8 of African in him, identifies as black o Supreme court rules 8-1 decision ??  Separate but equal Post Reconstruction Era: Jim Crow Jim Crow Laws  Restrict blacks to separate sections in public places  Additional laws for some states Why segregate?  Fears of interracial sex “Miscegenation”  Fears of race-mixing o Mess up racial hierarchy  Miscegenation and anti-miscegenation laws o In some state the laws were repealed during reconstruction and re-instated during this time period o Mixed marriage illegal until 1967 Week One: 06/6 – 06/12  Controlling black men and white women  Continued white male control and access to black women’s bodies o History of white men sexual violence against black women o They remained unpunished Segregation  Point to maintain white male power  Other groups affected o Mexicans o Chinese  A lot of racism with those of “Mongolian” decent  Anti-chinese riot in Seattle, WA  White attacked chinese businesses  Segregation severity varies in different states  Unequal economic status Nationwide racial discrimination against blacks  Not just south  Anti-black sentiment in the North, Midwest o De jure – by law o De facto – by custom  Segregation law of the land in the south (1880s-1890s)  South no more progressive in racial dispute than the North * Construction of the “black rapist” th  Stereotype created late 19 centthy o Prevails until the mid 20 century  Idea that black men innately want to rape young white women, usually virgin  Stereo type used to keep black men from being with white women  Philip Alexander Bruce o Apologist for slavery o Said that is was better when black men were enslaved because now that they are free, they have no control for their lust of white women  Increased violence against AA o Lynching ??  Involved a mob of illegally executing black men and women  People were lynched when black got any type of power that threatened the whites  Ex. competitor grocery store Week One: 06/6 – 06/12  Sometime hanging  Justified by interracial rape charge  Less than 25% of lynching resulted from accusation of sexual violence ??  With lynching on the rise in the south, the stereotype spreads to the north  Lynching peaked in 1892  Sometimes happened at night  Sadistic, the white people enjoyed it o Henry Smith  Murdered 1893  Lynched in front 10,000 people o Sam Hose  Kills employer in self defense  Murdered in 1899  Women Lynch Victims o Charlotte Morris (black) and white husband lynched for living together Awesome Person from History: Ida B. Wells = awesome baddass Ida B. Wells **exam  Nations leading anti-lynching crusader in 19 century  Sat in the women’s car in 1884 train ride in Tennessee o Forcibly removed from the car  Sues railroad and wins  Supreme reverses decision  Investigative journalist  Nationwide and international attention to lynching  Has personal experience with lynching o Friends lynched o Thomas Moss, grocery store in economic competition with white store o Wrote about the lynching in paper  News Office Destroyed by whites  Flees town  Goes to NY and led first anti lynching campaign Pamphlets o Uses white sources to write about lynching o Southern Horror 1892 o A red Record 1895 o Mob rule in New Orleans 1900 Week One: 06/6 – 06/12  Takes cause international  Argues that white women and black men sex is consensual  Redefining rapists/rape o Not black men, but white men raping black women  Redefining rape between white men and black women, was not seen as violent before  Calling out the hypocrisy of the South o Says that white men actually want to just be violent against blacks and keep themselves in power  And if they were actually concerned with rape, then they would not be raping black women  “The Afro-American is not a bestial race”  Demands justice for every citizen and punishment by law for the lawless “The North won the war but the South won the peace” –historian  Suggestion of more continuity than change  South determines what peace is going to look like  Idea of black rapist originated in the south Black codes?? Settling and Unsettling the American West  A time of unprecedented growth and expansion of the nation  Also a time of destruction and territorial acquisition of native peoples and cultures  A story of encroachment on others peoples land Western Frontier Problems?  Whose West?  Originally referred to the land west of the Miss river  Where the western frontier is shifts over time  Suggests only East to West movement  Territorial expansion o Not a vast, empty wilderness, there’s people there Native American Wars  Pre-Civil war, congress not overly concerned with Great Plains  1870s fighting Native Americans becomes a major concern of the US o A lot of money is put in to fight Indians Week One: 06/6 – 06/12  US Army seeks to destroy the foundation of the Indian economy o Horses, homes o How can they do this?  Manifest Destiny  God apparently wanted them to take over and civilize the whole of the continent to expand liberty o Painting of ‘lady liberty’  Bringing light to the darkness  Bringing their way of life to the west Eradication Native ways of Life  Complete extermination of any Indians that refuse to cooperate o Dispossession of lands  Assigned Indians to least desirable land  Promised protection from white encroachment  Promised food, clothing, necessities o Problem was these were false promises, Indians rarely got supplies  Starved, miserable  NA’s become completely dependent on government  Indians wards of the state o Indians denied the right to become US citizens  Buffalo population basically extinct by hunting from whites o Buffalo was a necessity for life for the Sioux Indians  Destroyed Sioux economy and way of life o “Better to kill the buffalo than have him feed the Sioux” Awesome person from history Sitting Bull  Native American chief 1868  Defiant toward US military power  Contemptuous against US and false promises  Fought in several battle against US, widely respected  Black Hills of South Dakota o Land given to Lakota o Found gold 1874  Sioux resisted to give up land  They defend their land against US troops  Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 o Indians defeat general George custard ?? custer o Last major Indian victory  Public outrage in response Week One: 06/6 – 06/12  More people go to fight Indians  May 1877 – goes to Canada o Refuses to return to US and live on a reservation  On brink of starvation 1881 – surrenders to US  1885 – joins Buffalo Bill’s Wild west Show o Disgusted quits after 4 months  1890 killed by US and Indian police  Remembered for being stubborn and determination against US forces and courage Eradication Native culture: Boarding Schools  Civilizing and uplifting native people o Have NA’s adopt white American values o Turn Indians into white man  “Kill the Indian and save the man”  Churches and missionary schools o On their reservations o White run boarding schools  1879 first off-reservation boarding schools o Carlisle Indian Industrial School o Take kids at an early age and not be return until adults, not permitted to visit families o Point was to de-culturize them  Carlisle Indian Industrial School o Richard Pratt o Modeled on program at Fort Marion Prison for people to assimilate white cultural values o Children forced to attend, if parents refused they were arrested Cultural Genocide  Worship as Christians  Speak English, only allowed to use English o Punished if not english  Burned everything that their brought  Cut their hair, traumatizing  Many die of starvation and disease  Sexual physical and emotional abuse was rampid at these schools


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