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Week 3 Notes (9/8)

by: Ashley Prenatt

Week 3 Notes (9/8) CSD 1080

Marketplace > Ohio University > CSD 1080 > Week 3 Notes 9 8
Ashley Prenatt
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About this Document

These notes cover an overview of chronological age groups and their typical development stages/timeline.
Intro to Communication Science Disorders
Dr. Hajjar
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Prenatt on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 1080 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Hajjar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Communication Development ­ An Overview of Typical Development    *Communication, speech, language and Representation of  ­infants & toddlers  ­preschoolers  ­school­age and adolescents  ­early middle adulthood  ­late adulthood  ­table 2.1 on pg. 23­24, helpful for this and for exam    Focus today on infants, preschoolers    *Developments of senses, how that influences communication in infants  *Idea of representation, something stands for something else  *Typical Developments  *The development of both speech and language  *What does and does not change in old age in communication    Infants    Head measures ¼ of body  Many random movements    5 Primitive Reflexes:  Asymmetrical Tonic Neck: when the head is turned to one side, the arms and leg on the  side that the head is turned towards extend and the arms and leg on the other side flex  in  Rooting: turning head to meet something to be put in mouth; usually integrates about 3  months of age  Grasping: grasping something put into their hand or feet; usually integrates by 4­7  months   Galant: when holding the baby upside down, moving hip from side to side. Reflex  integrates around 3­6 months  Moro: Hold baby in seated or reclined position, then drop him back, arms go forward,  then they cry    ­If these reflexes are not present, should be worried about development  ­Normally reflexes will eventually cease, so if they do not, should be worried about  higher development functions  ­Most gone by 6 months, definitely by 1 year  ­This grasping is the main way infants communicate, in addition to eye contact     Vision  ­preferring objects that move, objects with contrasted lightness and darkness    Hearing  ­prefer the sound of human voices    Development    First few weeks: vision and hearing start to correlate; looking towards a familiar  sound/voice. Key to development. Hospitals look to hear infant screaming when they  are born    First few months: coordination of vision and reach. Also key to development     ­Body movement, vision, hearing, beginning of hand­eye coordination, and vision and  hearing, all key to development    ­cornerstone for social/communication development: caregiver voice becomes familiar  to infact; normal for infant to respond more to caregiver than stranger    ​ ­”Children b​ ecome communicators because they are treated as if they ​are  communicators.”  ­within 2 weeks, infant can begin to distinguish caregiver voice and face   ­12 weeks: starting to take turns; ex: peek­a­boo, familiar, repetitive game.  Learning the pattern of them doing something and getting a reaction; more likely  to do again  ­important for caregiver to talk consistently to them to help them develop  communication  ­video with mother giving verbal affirmative response to baby’s noises, baby and  mother “talk” back and forth  ­8­9 months: intentionality, goal directedness begins to develop; communication  Gestures with eye contact; beginning to hear sounds accompany these as  well  Reaching out/pointing, to request something      Speech    0­1 months  Able to discriminate between speech sounds at birth  Produce speech sounds as a reflex  Through first year  ­Transition to words  ­Includes babbling    Representation: process of having one thing stand for another (symbolism)    ­6­12 months: respond to a few frequently used symbols  ­10 months: recognize first word  ­12 months: first meaningful word  ­18 months: know about 50 words, begin combining words    ­Receptive language skills develop first, before expressive language  ­Affirmation from caregivers help develop identification for words for items/people    Language Production    Form   ­Simplifying complicated words  ­Vocab growth starts slow, increases rapidly  ­by age 2, vocab of 150­300 words  ­baby can understand over 300 words, but actual production from  them is under 300  ­using a single word to represent many questions; “nana” = anything about a  banana; usually goes along with gesture      Preschoolers    ­Age 3­5  ­Caregivers include parents, teachers, babysitters  ­Questions like “What happened during your day?” Near 5 years old, can start talking  outside the here and now      Language  ­large vocab growth; 900 words by age 3, 1500 by age 4  ­maintain “back and forth talking” for 2­3 turns  ­develop grammar  ­acquire 90% of all syntax by 5 years old    Speech  ­gradual process to learn speech sounds  ­consonant clusters (two or more consonants together, tr in train, for example)  are learned later  ­substitutions of some sounds, “fa” for “fix”  ­speech development is ongoing as typical errors occur, errors will decrease as  child continues to develop  ­if errors continue past appropriate time, warning for possible development  impairment happening    School­Age    ­Ages 5­9  ­vocab grows to 25,000­30,000 words  ­slang becoming important  ­​​ 5 year old’s conversation about  discipline  ­maturity in language and speech at this stage      School­Age and Adolescents    ­emphasis on reading and writing  ­able to think about talk, and analyze language  ­semantic (types of words) and pragmatics (action with peers in conversations vs.  adults) development  ­refining process over age 18    Form  ­Initially spoken language is more complex than written, but reverses in late  elementary school  Use  ­learning to adjust language use depending on partner (friend, parents, teacher)  ­ongoing brain development impacting decision making  ­social use of language, language is based on their own individual experiences  with their peers, what’s happening at home, etc.    ­by age 8, all speech sounds typically mastered    Transition to Adulthood    18­26  ­Time of transition of change  ­Move the most in this stage of life than any other    Early­Middle Adulthood    ­Writing and speaking improve with continued use  ­Skills continue to refine    Form  ­specialized vocabulary based on career/interests    Late Adulthood (65+)    ­Age itself not making communication worse, rather diseases like dementia, alzheimer's  ­Complexity of spoken/written sentences may decline with age  ­possible word finding issues that emerge  ­psychological/social changes related to aging  ­individuals very interested in talking about their life story, wanting people to know their  story and who they are; communication goals shift in this way  ­voice quality/speech rate may decrease in late adulthood 


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