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Principles of Biology Week 4 Notes

by: Takira Boyd

Principles of Biology Week 4 Notes BIOL 1504.9HO

Marketplace > Kankakee Community College > Biology > BIOL 1504.9HO > Principles of Biology Week 4 Notes
Takira Boyd

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About this Document

These notes include Chapter 3 Sections 3.4-3.6.
Principles of Biology
Mr. Mager
Class Notes
Biology, Principles of biology, life, Science, notes, WEEK4, 4, 3.4-3.6, kcc, Bio, cells
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 4 Notes  3.4 The Cell Membrane The Cell Membrane Enclose the sides of the cell. Carry markers so cells recognize each other, distinguishes between “self” and  “non­self” The plasma membrane carries receptors The metabolic provide energy by making specific substances or the cell/ break  down toxins for release Receptors are involved with hormones and neurotransmitters and allow messages  in the cell. Sometimes viruses use recognition spots for attachment and this may be why HIV and Hepatitis viruses invade only specific cells.  Fluid Mosiac Model In 1972 S. J. Singer and Garth L. Nicolson proposed the fluid mosaic  model Plasma membrane is made of: phospholipids (with proteins),  carbohydrates, glycolipids, glycoproteins, (animal cells have cholesterol) Makeup of the membrane is 1. Two layers of phospholipids (with  proteins that are embedded), 2. A protein layer (major chemical  component), 3. A layer of carbohydrates 3.5 Passive Transport  Selectively Permeable­ allows some things to pass through and others are blocked (If this option was not incorporated the cell would be destroyed because some  cells need more of a substance than others)  Passive Transport, is a natural occurrence and does not requires the cell to use  energy, substances move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration  area and this is Diffusion  Concentration Gradient­ a place where there is a different concentration of a  single substance  Selective Permeability  Plasma membranes have hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas  What can come through (lipid­soluble substances, fat­soluble vitamins  like A, D, E, and K (in the digestive tract, and other tissues), fat­soluble  drugs (in the body’s tissues and organs), oxygen and carbon dioxide  molecules (have no charge= pass through with simple diffusion)  What can’t come through polar substances (not water), small ions  (Sodium, Calcium, Chloride, and Potassium must have a specific purpose  to enter), simple sugars and amino acids.  Diffusion  Diffusion­ passive process of transport  Expands no energy  Is like perfume. When you first open the bottle it will be strong and  possibly a bit overwhelming. Overtime it will diffuse. This is going from a high to low concentration.  Factors that affect Diffusion: 1. Extent of the concentration gradient, 2.  Mass of molecules diffusing, 3. Temperature 4. Solvent density  Facilitated Transport/ Facilitated Diffusion   Material moves the membrane with the help of transmembrane proteins from  high to low concentration while the cell does not have to use energy  Osmosis (Special case of diffusion, high to low concentration)  Water passing through  Transports only water, diffusion transports material  Solute­ different concentration of a dissolved substance on each side   One Principle of Diffusion­ molecules will move freely and evenly if they  can  Osmosis will continue until the concentration gradient of water reaches 0.  Osmosis is always happening in living systems.  Tonicity  Amount of solute in a solution  Osmolarity­ amount of solutes dissolved   Words used to relate to the osmolarity of the extra fluid in the cell 1.  Hypotonic (lower concentration of extracellular fluid), 2. Isotonic (has the  same extracellular fluid and the osmolarity), 3. Hypertonic (higher  concentration of extracellular fluid  See Figure 3.23 about Turgor Pressure Hypertonic­ water goes out the cell in the vacuole, Hypotonic­ water fills the cell completely in the vacuole,  Isotonic­ water goes in and out the cell of the vacuole 3.6 Active Transport  Need the cell’s energy like ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)  If a substance has to enter a cell against the concentration gradient = cell uses  more energy  Large particles can’t pass with/without cell’s energy  Electrochemical Gradient  Made of both the chemical and electrical gradient  Important to muscle and nerve cells  To move substances along a gradient the cell must use energy  Two transports are the Primary and Secondary Active Transport  Primary Active Transport: moves ions across the membrane and makes a  change in the charge, uses ATP to move a substance  Sodium­Potassium Pump (in animal cells) moves potassium ions in the cell  and sodium out the cell= concentration/ charge difference  Secondary Active Transport: movement of material using energy established  by the Primary Active Transport, using this energy created allows substances  like amino acids and sodium to pass through the cell membrane channels,  SAT is where ATP is made (uses a hydrogen ion in the mitochondria to make  ATP)  Endocytosis  An active transport that moves particles (like large molecules, whole cells, parts  of cells) in the cell. Common characteristic of all the Endocytosis is that the plasma membrane of the  cell invaginates (turns inside out or folds back on itself to form a cavity or pouch)  Then pinches off and creates a new vacuole within the cell membrane  Phagocytosis­ large things come in the cell (Example: cells, Neutrophil (a white  blood cells) comes in and engulfs the microorganism where it is then destroyed),   Pinocytosis­ “cell drinking” (idea that the cell takes in extracellular fluid), this  process that takes in solutes from the extracellular fluid that is needed.   Receptor­Mediated Endocytosis­ uses specific binding proteins (which are in the  plasma membrane) for specific molecules. /particles.  Exocytosis­ takes out material that comes from the cell and puts it into the  extracellular fluid


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