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Psyc 3312, Test two materials

by: Kara Fields

Psyc 3312, Test two materials PSYC 3312

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 3312 > Psyc 3312 Test two materials
Kara Fields
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About this Document

The end of chapter 1 and the beginning of chapter 2.
Sensation and Perception
Dr. Ashley Burch
Class Notes
Psychology, Sensations, perception




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Fields on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3312 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Ashley Burch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology (PSYC) at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
   Chapter 1: Unit Test 2… Cortical Anatomy - Cortex is about 80% of the brain. Frontal (Higher order thinking, executive thought),  Occipital (Vision), Parietal (Movement, information coming into body, Sensory  coordination), and Temporal (Hearing, language, memory formation).  Broca’s area - TAN. Patient called this because he could only say that word. Motor issue with producing speech.  Wernicke’s Area - Patient could produce speech but not understand what it meant. Understanding language  area.  Insular Cortex - Emotional and Rational brain come together. Someone makes you very angry but you  realize you can’t lash out at them.  Ventricular System - Cerebral spinal fluid produced in your ventricles.  - Completely fresh fluid about 3­4 times a day because it gets renewed.  Brain Divisions and Structures­ *Know the ­cephelons* - Forebrain (Cortex), Midbrain (A lot of Integration of information from hindbrain to  forebrain. Can’t really see because under forebrain and hindbrain), Hindbrain (Primitive,  share very similar structures with animals lower down on the chain, like reptiles). - Hindbrain­ Most Primitive part of the brain. Medulla (regulation of cardio vascular  system and respiration), pons (sleep and arousal. Superior to the medulla), and  cerebellum (motor coordination). - Midbrain­ Tectum (Vision and audition reflexes, turning head towards the light/sound,  the immediate response), Tegmentum (Motor function); Reticular formation (waking up  from a sound that it decides is important), Ventral Tegmental Area (associated with  substance abuse, addiction, motivation to seek stimulating or rewarding in environment,  lots of serotine and dopamine), Periaqueductal gray (Connects the third and fourth  ventricles, reduces pain and the experience of pain, sensitive to opiates), Red Nucleus  (without staining when cut into brain it is pink, determines movement), Substantia Nigra  (Black/ dark grey tint).  - Forebrain­ Thalamus (motor and sensory information), Hypothalamus (maintaining  homeostasis, sex drive and reproduction, hunger), Limbic System/Hippocampus  (regulation of emotion and memory formation), Basal Ganglia (coordinates movement),  Cortex (whole outer structure, most of volume of brain, 80%).  Cranial Nerves - 12 pairs of them. “On old Olympus towering top an” - 2. Optic­ Vision. You have 2 eyes.  - 5. Trigeminal­ incoming sensory information from the face, chewing.  - 8. Auditory­ Hearing, balance.  - 10. Vagus­ longest cranial nerve in body. Autonomic nervous system.  Spinal Nerves - 31 pairs of these. More than the cranial.  - Each corresponds with a region of the body.  - 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal.  Peripheral Nervous System - Somatic­ spinal and cranial nerves (except the optic nerve). Sensory information and  controls voluntary movement. Controls skeletal muscles. Choose to move them and how  to move them when working correctly.  - Autonomic­ Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. “Self­ Governing”­ muscles  around eye, gut, skin, and heart. Out of your control like the smooth muscle and cardiac  muscles.  o Sympathetic­ Arousal, energy expenditure, fight or flight. When activated your  heart rate increases by adrenaline, pumping more blood so giving muscles more  oxygen.  o Parasympathetic­ Rest and relaxation. Digestion. Sleep.  Chapter 2…Vision.  Distal, Proximal, Receptor, Neural. First 4 steps of the process.  Psychophysics of Vision - Physical­ Psychological  - Wavelength­ Hue or Color - Amplitude­ Brightness. How intense.  - Purity­ Saturation (vividness). Smooth line or grey and less vivid.  Energy is described by wavelength.  Anatomy of the eye - Iris­ colored part. - Cornea­ outer covering of the eye.  - Pupil­ Inside the Iris. A black hole. Gets bigger or smarter.  - Lens­ outer of the pupil. (think of a contact) - Retina­ transduction (sensory information get transformed to wherever it needs to be  processed). Fovea.  - Optic nerve­ cranial nerve #2.  Blind Spot - Exists the eye because of a lack of retina in your visual field.  - Optic nerve is below the fovea. Retinal Cell Layers - 5 types of cells. Divided into 3 main layers.  - Rods/cones are photoreceptors­ Transduction.  - Bipolar/Ganglion­ Signaling - Horizontal­ Later Inhibition.  - Amacrine­ Movement.    9/13/16 Photoreceptors - 2 types. - Cones has 6 million. Rods have 120 million. Way more Rods than Cones.  - Chromatic (color, responds to wavelength) and Achromatic (not sensitive to wavelengths  like cones are. Respond to amplitudes­ brightness). - Saturable­ when too much light, it is unable to respond anymore.  - Convergent (highly­ big pyramid with lots coming down to one. More connection  between neurons.)  - Fovea (center of vision)­ location that contains only cones. Periphery­ location that  contains mostly rods with a little bit of cones.  Vision Loss - Macular Degeneration­ lose central vision.  - Retinitis Pigmentosa­ lose everything but central vision.     (Like Opposites)  Focusing light - Reason people are near sighted (can only see object nearby) or far sighted (can only see  objects far away).  Vision Problems - Presbyopia­ holding a newspaper far away so eyes can adjust. Wears Bifocals.  Photoreceptors in the dark. (Active.) - 11­cis retnal is responsible for absorbing different wavelengths of light.  - A lot of cGMP. - Opsin is the rod.  - 3 different cones for each different color.  - Depolarizing current= neurotransmitter release.  - Depolarization bc of the lack of light. ­35/­45 mV. In the dark, so no light activating the  receptor.  Photoreceptor Transduction (Inactive. Stop releasing photo transmitters.) - All the same pieces but now in a new shape.  - A straighter configuration.  - When don’t have a lot of cGMP, the channels close.  Pigment Regeneration - Bleached when the light comes in.  Adaptation - Turning a lights brightness up or down to where you can just barely notice it is your  threshold.  Dark Adaptation - Ex… Threshold= 20, 100       Sensitivity= 1/20, 1/100 Conclusion…As your threshold goes up (increases), your sensitivity goes down  (decreases).  - You are more sensitive to the light in the dark.  - Watching a meteor shower, go out 30 minutes before so your eyes can be a max  sensitivity to light (will not get any more sensitive, no matter how long you sit in the  dark). Looking at stars, don’t look directly at them.  Rod Monochromats - Only have rods. No cones at all.  - Very Rare.  - No color vision.  Spectral Sensitivity - Threshold and sensitivity curve are exact opposites.  - Sensitivity is the inverse of threshold.  Absorption Spectrum - Short, medium, and long rods. R stands for rods.  - Short responds to dark blue and light blues  Signal Processing - Over 100 million photoreceptors in our eyes.  - Converge to 1 million ganglion.  - Fovea has a 1:1 ratio connection. 1 photoreceptor to 1 ganglion.  - 120 rods to one ganglion.  - 6 cones to one ganglion.  - High convergence, you lose detail. Yes, or no response.  Properties of Action Potential - Propagated response­ same voltage when you plug into n outlet as when it goes down the  wire.  - Stimulus intensity increases rate of firing.  - Refractory Period­ wait until it reaches resting state to fire again. About 1milisecond.  - Spontaneous Activity­ base line rate level of response.  9/15/16


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