Psyc 3312, Test two materials
Psyc 3312, Test two materials PSYC 3312
Popular in Sensation and Perception
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Fields on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3312 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Ashley Burch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology (PSYC) at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Chapter 1: Unit Test 2… Cortical Anatomy - Cortex is about 80% of the brain. Frontal (Higher order thinking, executive thought), Occipital (Vision), Parietal (Movement, information coming into body, Sensory coordination), and Temporal (Hearing, language, memory formation). Broca’s area - TAN. Patient called this because he could only say that word. Motor issue with producing speech. Wernicke’s Area - Patient could produce speech but not understand what it meant. Understanding language area. Insular Cortex - Emotional and Rational brain come together. Someone makes you very angry but you realize you can’t lash out at them. Ventricular System - Cerebral spinal fluid produced in your ventricles. - Completely fresh fluid about 34 times a day because it gets renewed. Brain Divisions and Structures *Know the cephelons* - Forebrain (Cortex), Midbrain (A lot of Integration of information from hindbrain to forebrain. Can’t really see because under forebrain and hindbrain), Hindbrain (Primitive, share very similar structures with animals lower down on the chain, like reptiles). - Hindbrain Most Primitive part of the brain. Medulla (regulation of cardio vascular system and respiration), pons (sleep and arousal. Superior to the medulla), and cerebellum (motor coordination). - Midbrain Tectum (Vision and audition reflexes, turning head towards the light/sound, the immediate response), Tegmentum (Motor function); Reticular formation (waking up from a sound that it decides is important), Ventral Tegmental Area (associated with substance abuse, addiction, motivation to seek stimulating or rewarding in environment, lots of serotine and dopamine), Periaqueductal gray (Connects the third and fourth ventricles, reduces pain and the experience of pain, sensitive to opiates), Red Nucleus (without staining when cut into brain it is pink, determines movement), Substantia Nigra (Black/ dark grey tint). - Forebrain Thalamus (motor and sensory information), Hypothalamus (maintaining homeostasis, sex drive and reproduction, hunger), Limbic System/Hippocampus (regulation of emotion and memory formation), Basal Ganglia (coordinates movement), Cortex (whole outer structure, most of volume of brain, 80%). Cranial Nerves - 12 pairs of them. “On old Olympus towering top an” - 2. Optic Vision. You have 2 eyes. - 5. Trigeminal incoming sensory information from the face, chewing. - 8. Auditory Hearing, balance. - 10. Vagus longest cranial nerve in body. Autonomic nervous system. Spinal Nerves - 31 pairs of these. More than the cranial. - Each corresponds with a region of the body. - 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal. Peripheral Nervous System - Somatic spinal and cranial nerves (except the optic nerve). Sensory information and controls voluntary movement. Controls skeletal muscles. Choose to move them and how to move them when working correctly. - Autonomic Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. “Self Governing” muscles around eye, gut, skin, and heart. Out of your control like the smooth muscle and cardiac muscles. o Sympathetic Arousal, energy expenditure, fight or flight. When activated your heart rate increases by adrenaline, pumping more blood so giving muscles more oxygen. o Parasympathetic Rest and relaxation. Digestion. Sleep. Chapter 2…Vision. Distal, Proximal, Receptor, Neural. First 4 steps of the process. Psychophysics of Vision - Physical Psychological - Wavelength Hue or Color - Amplitude Brightness. How intense. - Purity Saturation (vividness). Smooth line or grey and less vivid. Energy is described by wavelength. Anatomy of the eye - Iris colored part. - Cornea outer covering of the eye. - Pupil Inside the Iris. A black hole. Gets bigger or smarter. - Lens outer of the pupil. (think of a contact) - Retina transduction (sensory information get transformed to wherever it needs to be processed). Fovea. - Optic nerve cranial nerve #2. Blind Spot - Exists the eye because of a lack of retina in your visual field. - Optic nerve is below the fovea. Retinal Cell Layers - 5 types of cells. Divided into 3 main layers. - Rods/cones are photoreceptors Transduction. - Bipolar/Ganglion Signaling - Horizontal Later Inhibition. - Amacrine Movement. 9/13/16 Photoreceptors - 2 types. - Cones has 6 million. Rods have 120 million. Way more Rods than Cones. - Chromatic (color, responds to wavelength) and Achromatic (not sensitive to wavelengths like cones are. Respond to amplitudes brightness). - Saturable when too much light, it is unable to respond anymore. - Convergent (highly big pyramid with lots coming down to one. More connection between neurons.) - Fovea (center of vision) location that contains only cones. Periphery location that contains mostly rods with a little bit of cones. Vision Loss - Macular Degeneration lose central vision. - Retinitis Pigmentosa lose everything but central vision. (Like Opposites) Focusing light - Reason people are near sighted (can only see object nearby) or far sighted (can only see objects far away). Vision Problems - Presbyopia holding a newspaper far away so eyes can adjust. Wears Bifocals. Photoreceptors in the dark. (Active.) - 11cis retnal is responsible for absorbing different wavelengths of light. - A lot of cGMP. - Opsin is the rod. - 3 different cones for each different color. - Depolarizing current= neurotransmitter release. - Depolarization bc of the lack of light. 35/45 mV. In the dark, so no light activating the receptor. Photoreceptor Transduction (Inactive. Stop releasing photo transmitters.) - All the same pieces but now in a new shape. - A straighter configuration. - When don’t have a lot of cGMP, the channels close. Pigment Regeneration - Bleached when the light comes in. Adaptation - Turning a lights brightness up or down to where you can just barely notice it is your threshold. Dark Adaptation - Ex… Threshold= 20, 100 Sensitivity= 1/20, 1/100 Conclusion…As your threshold goes up (increases), your sensitivity goes down (decreases). - You are more sensitive to the light in the dark. - Watching a meteor shower, go out 30 minutes before so your eyes can be a max sensitivity to light (will not get any more sensitive, no matter how long you sit in the dark). Looking at stars, don’t look directly at them. Rod Monochromats - Only have rods. No cones at all. - Very Rare. - No color vision. Spectral Sensitivity - Threshold and sensitivity curve are exact opposites. - Sensitivity is the inverse of threshold. Absorption Spectrum - Short, medium, and long rods. R stands for rods. - Short responds to dark blue and light blues Signal Processing - Over 100 million photoreceptors in our eyes. - Converge to 1 million ganglion. - Fovea has a 1:1 ratio connection. 1 photoreceptor to 1 ganglion. - 120 rods to one ganglion. - 6 cones to one ganglion. - High convergence, you lose detail. Yes, or no response. Properties of Action Potential - Propagated response same voltage when you plug into n outlet as when it goes down the wire. - Stimulus intensity increases rate of firing. - Refractory Period wait until it reaches resting state to fire again. About 1milisecond. - Spontaneous Activity base line rate level of response. 9/15/16
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