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Psych 3312, Chapter two, Test two.

by: Kara Fields

Psych 3312, Chapter two, Test two. PSYC 3312

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 3312 > Psych 3312 Chapter two Test two
Kara Fields

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Chapter two starting with Photoreceptors.
Sensation and Perception
Dr. Ashley Burch
Class Notes
Psychology, sensation, perception
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Fields on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3312 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Ashley Burch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology (PSYC) at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
9/13/16 Photoreceptors - 2 types. - Cones has 6 million. Rods have 120 million. Way more Rods than Cones.  - Chromatic (color, responds to wavelength) and Achromatic (not sensitive to wavelengths  like cones are. Respond to amplitudes­ brightness). - Saturable­ when too much light, it is unable to respond anymore.  - Convergent (highly­ big pyramid with lots coming down to one. More connection  between neurons.)  - Fovea (center of vision)­ location that contains only cones. Periphery­ location that  contains mostly rods with a little bit of cones.  Vision Loss - Macular Degeneration­ lose central vision.  - Retinitis Pigmentosa­ lose everything but central vision.     (Like Opposites)  Focusing light - Reason people are near sighted (can only see object nearby) or far sighted (can only see  objects far away).  Vision Problems - Presbyopia­ holding a newspaper far away so eyes can adjust. Wears Bifocals.  Photoreceptors in the dark. (Active.) - 11­cis retnal is responsible for absorbing different wavelengths of light.  - A lot of cGMP. - Opsin is the rod.  - 3 different cones for each different color.  - Depolarizing current= neurotransmitter release.  - Depolarization bc of the lack of light. ­35/­45 mV. In the dark, so no light activating the  receptor.  Photoreceptor Transduction (Inactive. Stop releasing photo transmitters.) - All the same pieces but now in a new shape.  - A straighter configuration.  - When don’t have a lot of cGMP, the channels close.  Pigment Regeneration - Bleached when the light comes in.  Adaptation - Turning a lights brightness up or down to where you can just barely notice it is your  threshold.  Dark Adaptation - Ex… Threshold= 20, 100       Sensitivity= 1/20, 1/100 Conclusion…As your threshold goes up (increases), your sensitivity goes down  (decreases).  - You are more sensitive to the light in the dark.  - Watching a meteor shower, go out 30 minutes before so your eyes can be a max  sensitivity to light (will not get any more sensitive, no matter how long you sit in the  dark). Looking at stars, don’t look directly at them.  Rod Monochromats - Only have rods. No cones at all.  - Very Rare.  - No color vision.  Spectral Sensitivity - Threshold and sensitivity curve are exact opposites.  - Sensitivity is the inverse of threshold.  Absorption Spectrum - Short, medium, and long rods. R stands for rods.  - Short responds to dark blue and light blues  Signal Processing - Over 100 million photoreceptors in our eyes.  - Converge to 1 million ganglion.  - Fovea has a 1:1 ratio connection. 1 photoreceptor to 1 ganglion.  - 120 rods to one ganglion.  - 6 cones to one ganglion.  - High convergence, you lose detail. Yes, or no response.  Properties of Action Potential - Propagated response­ same voltage when you plug into n outlet as when it goes down the  wire.  - Stimulus intensity increases rate of firing.  - Refractory Period­ wait until it reaches resting state to fire again. About 1milisecond.  - Spontaneous Activity­ base line rate level of response. 


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