Biological Perspective 1301 Psych
Sam Houston State University
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1301 Psych at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Biological Perspective Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Is a network of cells that carries information to and from all The Nervous System Parts of the body Neuroscience The field of study that deals with the structer of the brain and components of the nervous system Specialized cells in Nervous system; They send and receive Neurons (Nerve Cells) messages within that system. They are the building blocks That comprise our nervous system Soma (Cell Body) Is the Neuron's life support containing all the necessary cell action things like the nucleus, DNA, Mitochondria etc.. Dendrites Receives messages and gossip from other cells they are the listeners, whispering what they hear back to the soma Axon Is the talker transmitting electrical impulses from the cell body out to the other neurons or glands or muscles. Depending on what type of neuron it is It's sometimes encased in a protective layer of fatty tissue called Myelin Sheath this speeds up the transmittion Synapses The contact point between neurons Dendrites are decorated with synapses Synaptic Gap (Space) Because the Synapses come close but not quite in contact with the neighboring neurons there is a gap known as a Synaptic gap or space The Dendrites pick up the signal and activate the neurons action potential or How It All Works firing impulse that shoots an electrical charge down the Axon to its terminals and toward the neighboring neurons The Messages activated by the action potential Neurotransmitters Since Neurotransmitters don't stay put after they are inhibited the receiving Re up take neuron's trigger the extras are reabsorbed by the neuron that released them the first time Brain: The true core of Nervous system takes information and processes it The Central Nervous System and sends commands to the rest of the body Spinal Cord: Long bundle of neurons that carries information to and away from the brain helps control pain response Involves different neurons sensory interneurons motor different neurons such as the Sensory neurons, Interneurons, and Motor neurons Spinal reflexes are fast acting the do the actions that don't require conscious thought The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Controls the voluntary muscles of the body Autonomic Nervous System Controls the automatic functions of the body Sympathetic Division Reacts to stressful events the "Fight or Flight" response Parasympathetic Division Responsible for day to day functioning of glands and organs Responsible for day to day functioning of glands and organs The body's "slow" chemical communication system; A set of glands that The Endocrine System secrete hormones into the blood stream Chemical messengers that are manufactured by endocrine glands that travel Hormones through the blood stream and affect other tissues (meaning Hormones can linger) They affect our moods, arousal and circadian rhythm, they regulate metabolism and monitor our immune system, signal growth and help with sexual reproduction. While the nervous system and endocrine system are similar in that they both produce chemicals to hit certain receptors they operate at different speeds. Same but Different It would be like if the Nervous System wanted to get in touch with you it would send a text. And the Endocrine System will write a letter and mail it however your body will remember the letter longer. Adrenal Gland The parts of the Endocrine System Helps trigger fight of flight response They secrete adrenaline The parts of the Endocrine System Adrenal Gland Helps trigger fight of flight response They secrete adrenaline Pancreas Regulates the level of sugar in the blood By pumping insulin and glucan hormones to regulate sugar Parathyroids Regulates the level of calcium in the blood Thyroid Gland Affects the metabolism Pituitary Gland Secretes many different hormones some of which are affect other glands Hypothalamus Brain region controlling the pituitary gland Testicles and Ovaries They secrete your sex hormones like estrogen and testosterone Your nervous system directs your endocrine system which directs your nervous system Old method- study occurred after death Minding the brain Lesioning Studies- studied animals or humans with brain damage Mapping Function Electroencephalogram (EEG) Recordes the electrical activity of the brain through the use of scalp electrodes Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Involves injection of a radioactive tracer that binds to glucose recordes activity that uses the radioactive glucose Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) Image of the brain that tracks changes in oxygen levels Map Structure Computed Tomography (CT) Based on x-ray technology Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) For Basic structure of the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) For Basic structure of the brain Brain Stem The Hindbrain The most ancient and central core of the brain (basic brain) Medulla Old brain functions happen automatically without an conscious effort such as breathing Pons Help coordinate several other automatic functions such as arousal and sleep etc.. Thalamus Take in sensory info related to seeing hearing touching and taste Reticular Formation Network inside the brain stem that's essential for arousal Cerebellum Responsible for nonverbal learning and memory the perception of time and modulating emotions controls voluntary movement Limbic System Amygdala Involved in memory consolidation and emotion is also responsible for the fear response Hippocampus Central to learning and memory Hypothalamus Regulates body temperature circadian rhythms and hunger helps to govern the endocrine system Cerebral Hemispheres The 2 hemispheres make up about 85% of your brain weight and over see your ability to think speak and perceive Regulate different functions of left and right brain Split Brain Corpus Callosum Connects both left and right brain Cerebral Cortex The outer most wrinkle layer of the brain comprise of left and right hemispheres Cerebral Hemispheres Each hemisphere can be divided into 4 lobes Frontal • Speaking • Planning • Judging • Abstract thinking • Personality Aspects Parietal • Sense of touch • Body Position Occipital • Info related of sight Temporal • Comprehension Sound • Speech Are Areas related to higher mental functions like remembering thinking Association Area learning and speaking Broca's Area Found in left frontal lobe devoted to speech production Found in the left temporal lobe plays a role in understanding the meaning of Wernicke's Area words
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