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BIOS 1700- Week 1 Notes

by: Hannah White

BIOS 1700- Week 1 Notes BIOS 1700

Marketplace > Ohio University > Biological Sciences > BIOS 1700 > BIOS 1700 Week 1 Notes
Hannah White

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These notes cover all lectures from week one.
Biological Sciences I: Molecules and Cells
Soichi Tanda
Class Notes
Biological, Science, Cell, atom
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah White on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1700 at Ohio University taught by Soichi Tanda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biological Sciences I: Molecules and Cells in Biological Sciences at Ohio University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 BIOS 1700 With Dr. Soichi Tanda Lecture 2 Chapter 1: Life: Chemical, Cellular, and Evolutionary Foundations - Scientific Method • Science = way of searching for answers to the unknowns in life - Scientific Method: Steps scientist must follow when trying to answer a question • Observations - Curiosities, detailed attention, clearly described questions - “What is going on when this happens?” • Hypothesis - Possible answers to explain what is going on - Can include several different possible solutions - EACH possible solution must be TESTABLE • Prediction - What happens if your hypothesis is correct? • Experiment - Test for each hypothesis - OBJECTIVE and REPEATABLE - If your results are consistently supporting your hypothesis over multiple experiments then you get a theory - If your experiment doesn’t support your hypothesis then you return to your hypothesis and figure out what went wrong • Theory - A general explanation for what is going on. - Example Scientific Method: 1 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 • Observation: Butterflies land on bright colored flowers • Hypothesis: Butterflies land on the bright color flowers because they are more attracted to them • Prediction: If given the choice a butterfly will prefer a brightly colored flower over another flower • Experiment: A sample population of butterflies is split into three groups. Group one is placed in a room with only bright colored flowers. Group two is placed in a room with dull colored flowers. And group 3 is placed in a room with only both colors. - Supports Hypothesis: Butterflies in the third group only go to the bright flowers - Doesn’t Support Hypothesis: Butterflies in third group go to dull flowers • Experiments = Results = Conclusions One conclusion can lead to an entirely new hypothesis • - Example: Redi’s experiment (life comes from life) lead to Pasteur’s experiment (bacteria are in the air) - The Cell: the Minimal Unit of Life • Cell: The simplest, self-replicating entity that exists as an independent unit of life - Can exist as: • Unicellular organisms like yeast, bacteria, etc. • Multicellular organisms like fruit fly, cheetah, humans and more - Come in all different shapes, sizes, and functions - Can see some cells with naked eye like an egg • Essential features in the cell for function: - Stores genetic information (DNA) in a double helix with complementary pairings which secures accuracy for replication - Unpacks the genetic information for growth and function (RNA and proteins) • Flow of Genetic Information in the cell: 2 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 - DNA (storage) RNA (unpacker) Proteins (execute) - DNA going to RNA (mRNA) is called TRANSCRIPTION - RNA to Protein (tRNA and Ribosomes) is called TRANSLATION • Study Tip: DNA to RNA is TRANSCRIPTION because the RNA is copying the DNA so that in RNA to Protein or TRANSLATION the RNA can translate the DNA language to the proteins • This is called the CENTRAL DOGMA of MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells: • - Similarities • Both have a plasma membrane to separate the inside and outside of the cell • Both have Cytoplasm: the inside of the membrane - Differences • Prokaryotic - All single-celled organisms - Simpler compared to the eukaryotic cell • Eukaryotic - More complex than prokaryotic Contain membrane bound • organelles like Nucleus, Mitochondria, and others in the cytoplasm - Can be single-celled (mold) OR multi-celled (humans) • Metabolism - The way of transforming energy from the environment into something life is able to use - Also known as the conversion of molecules from the environment into ATP • Example: - Sun Plants Cows (beef) Humans 3 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 • The Sun represents the environment. Each next step can also represent the environment or life. 4 Friday, August 26, 2016 BIOS 1700 with Dr. Soichi Tanda Lecture 3 Chapter 2: The Molecules of Life - What role does Chemistry play in Biology? • Atoms are the basic unit of matter also the smallest unit of matter • Atomic Number = The number of Protons (never changes) • Atomic Mass = The number of Protons and Neutrons (can change) • Isotopes: Different numbers of neutrons (can change) • Outer Shells or the energy level of the outer orbital determine how stable an atom or molecule is • All molecules become more stable or have less movement when the temperature decreases - Periodic Table • The ROWS equal the number of shells or orbitals each atom has - Example: • Hydrogen: Row 1, 1 orbital H C • Carbon: Row 2, 2 orbitals Ch • Chlorine: Row 3, 3 orbitals • Columns: Atoms in the SAME columns share similar chemical properties - Chemical Bonds - Bonds with shared electrons like covalent and ionic bonds - Bonds without shared electrons like hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals Force • Share/Bond between charges! • Covalent Bonds (Strongest) - Make atoms stable by filling their outer orbitals with valence electrons 1 Friday, August 26, 2016 - Non-polar and polar - Number of electrons in outer shell must equal 8 to be stable. - The electrons in the outermost orbital are called valence electrons - Covalent bonds are made to satisfy these valence electron needs; All atoms want the outer shell FILLED - Atoms make single, double, or triple covalent bonds with other atoms to make 8 valence electrons in the outer shell • Ionic Bonds (2nd strongest) - Extreme case of polar covalent bonds (below) - Not quiet sharing electrons • Example: Na + Cl bond - Cl “steals” an electron from Na atom to become a stable Cl- ion and a positive Na+ molecule - Molecules then bond to create a stable molecule like salt (NaCl) • Molecules with ionic bonds and polar molecules are able to “mingle” easily - Example: Salt and Water • Hydrogen Bonds (weaker) - Molecule to molecule bonds - The type of bond between nitrogenous bases in both DNA and RNA - When a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen atom in one water molecule is attracted to an oxygen atom of another water molecule, a hydrogen bond results • Van der Waals Force (weakest) - Molecule to molecule attraction • Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity - The power of protons ability to attract or pull electrons varies from atom to atom - Atoms on the right side of the periodic table are stronger than those on the left side 2 Friday, August 26, 2016 - When opposite sides of the periodic table bond it creates what is known as a polar bond Example: H20 1 • - Hydrogens’ electrons want to be near oxygen. This causes the oxygen to become negative and the hydrogens to become positive. Because there are distinctive charges on opposite ends of the molecule it is polar. - There are hydrogen bonds among polar molecules where the positive ends attract the negative ends and vice versa • These bonds make water “sticky” and continuous - Water • H2O - Chemical Reaction: 2 H 2+ O 2 = 2 H2O • 2 H 2and O 2are the REACTANTS • 2 H 2O are the PRODUCTS The medium for life • Molecules in biology are classified depending on if they can mix with water • - Hydrophilic- water-loving, polar, majority of atoms - Hydrophobic- water-fearing, non-polar - Aqueous- a water rich environment • For a water molecule to become stable they need to make an ordered group of 4 hydrogen bonds called an open lattice - pH, Acids, and Bases • The power of Hydrogen • Very important characteristic of an aqueous solution 1Image from: 3 Friday, August 26, 2016 • pH = -log[H+] • Processes and enzymes function best at specific pH levels • pH has an inverse relationship with hydrogens - the more hydrogens you add, the lower the pH or the more acidic the solution becomes - the more hydrogens you take away, the higher the pH or the more basic the solution becomes 0-6 is acidic • - Fun Fact: Lemon Juice had a pH of 2 • 7 is neutral2 - Fun Fact: Human blood has a pH of 7.4 • 8-14 is basic or alkaline - Fun Fact: Bleach has a pH of 13.5 - Carbon • Life’s chemical backbone - Carbon Atom • Atomic Number = 6 Carbon Tetrahedron • 3 Characteristics of Carbon - Maximum of 4 covalent bonds can be made - Forms a tetrahedron - Free rotation of each single bond • These features make organic molecules extremely diverse • Can make covalent bonds with each other in chains, branches, rings, or other shapes • Can make double bonds = 2Image of pH Scale and carbon tetrahedron from: google images 4 Friday, August 26, 2016 - However, the double bonds do NOT rotate - Covalent bonds between carbons = • This is the simple version, become familiar with because it will be on the exam - Isomer • Molecules with the same chemical formulas but different structures • Structures are the only way to tell them apart - Example: • Isoleucine and Leucine • Chemical Formula: - NO difference • Structural Formula 3 - The only way to tell these are two very different molecules 3Image from: google images 5


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