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Anth 1001-001, Week 1 Lecture 2 9.8.16

by: Lindsey Howe

Anth 1001-001, Week 1 Lecture 2 9.8.16 ANTH 1001

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Biology/Anthropology > ANTH 1001 > Anth 1001 001 Week 1 Lecture 2 9 8 16
Lindsey Howe
U of M

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Notes regarding Darwin's Theories and theories before Darwin. In this class we began to discuss Natural Selection.
Human Evolution
Dr. Aaron Armstrong
Class Notes
evolution, darwin, theories, Naturalselection
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Howe on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Aaron Armstrong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Evolution in Biology/Anthropology at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
ANTH 1001-001: Human Evolution Dr. Aaron Armstrong Thursday, September 8, 2016 Lecture 1 (Moodle) History of Evolutionary Thought before Darwin  3 Paths  the recognition of Human Evolution 1. Explaining the Variation in Life Forms a. Aristotle i. !!! b. Adoption by the Christian Church i. Each species is a perfect creation and unchanging = essentialism ii. God created humans above all animals – angels above !!! humans c. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! IMPORTANT i. Systema Naturae: a hierarchical classification of life 1. Responsible for coming up with the naming system of all organisms – kingdoms of nature! 2. ii. Taxonomy 1. Linnaean hierarchy iii. Binomial nomenclature of genus & species 1. Homo sapiens 2. Humans and great apes in the same category (although his religion conflicted with this, humans and apes were too similar to separate) d. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) i. Comparative Functional Anatomy: demonstrating a carnivore (i.e., a lion) from its tooth ii. Needed to address the increasing number of fossils of organisms that exist nowhere on the earth today 1. “Extinction” & “Catastrophism”, eventually defeated by Lyell a. Explanation for why animals are extinct today – biblical stories held truth e. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) !!!!!!!!!!!!! IMPORTANT i. First comprehensive, scientific theory of evolution (incorrect, but important) ii. Mechanism: Inheritance of acquired characteristics iii. 1) Change in environment causes changes in behavior 1. Relationship between environment & organism – a new idea iv. 2) Changes developed within the lifetime of an individual are heritable 1. Giraffes who like leaves on the tops of trees will grow longer necks from stretching and reaching to the top (this will NOT pass to its offspring – we know this now) v. Challenged the belief that species were immutable f. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) i. Populations have the capacity to increase exponentially ii. This leads to overpopulation, war, famine, disease, etc. iii. Natural populations are kept in check by forces which kill off (remove) members of that population (society, species) (Darwin drew on this!) !! g. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) THE MAN, THE MYTH, THE LEGEND. i. Took a long time to find his niche: minister, doctor, etc. ii. 1831 – HMS Beagle sets sail with Darwin as naturalist; !! Darwin brings books written by Lyell, Malthus, among others iii. 1836 – Beagle returns from trip around the world iv. 1837 – Darwin begins his first notebook on the “transmutation” of species v. 1855 – Wallace writes a paper equivalent to Darwin’s argument vi. 1858 – Darwin & Wallace give a joint paper on species origins to the Linnaean Society vii. 1859 – “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, on the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life” 1. Although both Darwin and Wallace independently theorized evolution by Natural Selection, Darwin is the one who continued in this line of research 2. Recognizing the Antiquity of the Planet a. Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) i. Genesis – Begats ii. Earth was created on Sunday, October 23, 4004 BC, 9:00 AM b. By the end of the Renaissance, this left us with two obstacles to developing a scientific theory of evolution: i. Young Age of the Earth ii. Fixity of Species c. Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) i. “Degeneration” of life forms due to bad environments ii. Cooling experiments 1. Earth could be 3-4 million years old but certainly 75,000 2. Greatly pushed back the origin of the earth iii. The earth had to be older than the observed things d. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) i. Leading proponent of “Uniformitarianism” (coined by James Hutton) 1. Processes we see now for the various aspects of geology – same processes occurring over time ii. Gradualism of Geological processes 1. Acquaintance of Darwin 2. Contributed to disproving the “young Earth” hypothesis through the geology of Mt. Etna (although he was set on divine creation) e. Lord Kelvin, William Thompson (1824-1907) i. Cooling body experiments 1. Earth is a molten blob of rock, cooled for a long long time ii. Earth must be 100 million years old (we now know it to be ~4.5 bil) 3. Recognizing the Antiquity of Humanity a. Jacques Boucher de Perthes (1788-1868) i. Father of Paleolithic Archaeology ii. Excavations in the Somme Valley, France 1. Linked old, human made things in layers of organisms that were/are extinct iii. Proved association of human-made artifacts with extinct fauna (animals) c. 1847-1858 iv. The Industrial Age made the paleontological & archaeological record hard to ignore  1859: The Pivotal Year o Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species o British geologists John Prestwich & Charles Lyell and the archaeologist John Evans visit the excavations of Boucher de Perthes and accept his claims for their antiquity o Thomas Huxley correctly identifies the fossil specimen discovered in 1856 in the Neander Valley, Germany, as an extinct species of human; we now call this fossil a Neanderthal.  Artificial Selection o For more than 10,000 years we’ve selected traits that we find desirable & purposefully influencing the breeding of domesticated animals  Wolves and dogs share 100% of genes o Darwin’s genius was in seeing that nature – the enrionment, food sources, predators – does the same thing in the present!  Darwin called this “Natural Selection”  Nature selecting desirable traits o The MAIN difference between Natural & Artificial Selection is that Natural Selection does NOT have a long term goal, unlike Artificial Selection  Darwin’s 5 Theories Regarding Evolution 1. Species change [evolution as such] !! 2. All organisms share a common ancestry 3. Evolution is gradual 4. Evolution leads to speciation ! 5. Evolution occurs through Natural Selection o This is not ONE THEORY of evolution but SEVERAL THEORIES


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