Ancient Mesopotamia and Mediterranean Lectures
Ancient Mesopotamia and Mediterranean Lectures History 1210-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by John Stephens on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1210-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Monique Laney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Tech & Civ I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
August 29, 2016 Civilization and Mesopotamia Lecture: Mesopotamia: The land between the rivers Characteristics of civilization: o It only starts in certain pockets of the world (Mesoamerica, Andean Region, Nile Valley, Huang Ho River Region, Indus River Region, Mesopotamia). o Cities serve as administrative centers. Bring complexity to the human condition. Mechanisms for food, basic life, storage, distribution brings complexity. Laws are more complex compared to village laws. Villages traditionally used social pressure instead of written laws. o Generally had early forms of irrigation. o Politics are based on territory, not on family lines. o Class differentiation, based both on wealth and ancestry. o Monumental building. Zigurats, Pyramids, ect. o Record keeping. Used through the use of tokens, clay pieces. Pieces were often sealed up inside clay balls to prevent foul play during trade. This in turn led to clay tablets with the number of tokens having been imprinted on the clay. This is turn led to Cuneiform, early Mesopotamian form of writing. o Advances in the sciences and arts. Leisure classes can spend more time thinking about things and leads to numerous scientific advances. New technologies, such as the horse, boats, and war machines came into Mesopotamia. The Tigris river was the one on the east, with the Euphrates on the west. Water of the Rivers came from runoff from snow covered mountain ranges surrounding Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia we find the first signs of irrigation. Maritime Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean: Lecture Outline: Geography. Ancient Minoans. o Impact on environment. Ancient Phoenicians: o Power of Written language. Ancient Greeks. o Military power and technology. Ancient Minoans: Lived in modern day Crete. Names after King Minos. Gained power through overseas trade. Used ships powered by both wind and oars. The Minoans had very useful cash crops but their land did not allow for the growth of sustainable crops. o Allowed the Minoans to become extremely wealthy and powerful. o City of Cronos was a large, important Minoan city. o Cronos had running water and sewage system. o Many Minoan Frescos that depicted the importance of the sea. o Historians are not sure why the Minoans fell from being such a great power. Theories vary from Volcano Eruption to Epidemic. Ancient Phoenicians: On the coast of modern Syria. Also a powerful maritime society. Cash crops were similar to Minoa, except for Tyrion purple. o Extremely beautiful color made from sea shells. o It was a very rare, expensive dye that became a symbol color for royalty. Host a refined ship design that sat higher in the water with better sails. large scale, specialized war ships allowed the Phoenicians to project political power into the Mediterranean world. Developed Phoenician Alphabet Ancient Greeks: Mycenaean’s: o Emerged about 2000 B.C.E. o Sprung up against Minoan encroachment. o Amphora: refined the shape and design which allowed the pots to be more tightly packed into the ship. o Pots from Greece show a lot about ancient life. Greek City-State: o A city, that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state. o Athens, and Sparta o Women have a more equal position in Spartan society vs. Athens. The term Polis refers to ancient Greek life. The Iliad and the Odyssey were mostly fiction, but displayed economic and military power these small Greek Kingdoms were able to exert. Athens had enormous sea power. o The Bireme and Trireme. o Very specialized war machines Utilized iron to forge strong shields and spears Greco-Persian War: At the same time Greece is emerging, the Persian empire has already made a name for itself. The Persians had an enormous extremely powerful Empire that could easily conquer the Greeks. The battle at Marathon defeated the Persian encroachment for a time. The battle at Salamis totally defeated the Persians. This war formed a union between all of Greece. The Peloponnesian War: Fought between Athens and Sparta. The Delian league is formed to help stop the Persians. The Peloponnesian League is designed to protect Sparta. The Spartans are able to defeat Athens after the disastrous battle at Syracuse. Phillip II of Macedon is responsible for the mass migration into the interior of Greece. o His son was Alexander the Great. o Fights against the Persians and creates a large empire spanning from Greece to India. o Spread Greek culture into multiple regions and societies.
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