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Ancient Mesopotamia and Mediterranean Lectures

by: John Stephens

Ancient Mesopotamia and Mediterranean Lectures History 1210-002

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > History 1210-002 > Ancient Mesopotamia and Mediterranean Lectures
John Stephens
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These are the lectures from yesterday and last Monday as well.
Tech & Civ I
Dr. Monique Laney
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by John Stephens on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1210-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Monique Laney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Tech & Civ I in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
August 29, 2016 Civilization and Mesopotamia Lecture: Mesopotamia: The land between the rivers  Characteristics of civilization: o It only starts in certain pockets of the world (Mesoamerica, Andean Region, Nile Valley, Huang Ho River Region, Indus River Region, Mesopotamia). o Cities serve as administrative centers.  Bring complexity to the human condition.  Mechanisms for food, basic life, storage, distribution brings complexity.  Laws are more complex compared to village laws.  Villages traditionally used social pressure instead of written laws. o Generally had early forms of irrigation. o Politics are based on territory, not on family lines. o Class differentiation, based both on wealth and ancestry. o Monumental building.  Zigurats, Pyramids, ect. o Record keeping.  Used through the use of tokens, clay pieces.  Pieces were often sealed up inside clay balls to prevent foul play during trade.  This in turn led to clay tablets with the number of tokens having been imprinted on the clay.  This is turn led to Cuneiform, early Mesopotamian form of writing. o Advances in the sciences and arts.  Leisure classes can spend more time thinking about things and leads to numerous scientific advances.  New technologies, such as the horse, boats, and war machines came into Mesopotamia.  The Tigris river was the one on the east, with the Euphrates on the west.  Water of the Rivers came from runoff from snow covered mountain ranges surrounding Mesopotamia.  In Mesopotamia we find the first signs of irrigation. Maritime Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean: Lecture Outline:  Geography.  Ancient Minoans. o Impact on environment.  Ancient Phoenicians: o Power of Written language.  Ancient Greeks. o Military power and technology. Ancient Minoans:  Lived in modern day Crete.  Names after King Minos.  Gained power through overseas trade.  Used ships powered by both wind and oars.  The Minoans had very useful cash crops but their land did not allow for the growth of sustainable crops. o Allowed the Minoans to become extremely wealthy and powerful. o City of Cronos was a large, important Minoan city. o Cronos had running water and sewage system. o Many Minoan Frescos that depicted the importance of the sea. o Historians are not sure why the Minoans fell from being such a great power.  Theories vary from Volcano Eruption to Epidemic. Ancient Phoenicians:  On the coast of modern Syria.  Also a powerful maritime society.  Cash crops were similar to Minoa, except for Tyrion purple. o Extremely beautiful color made from sea shells. o It was a very rare, expensive dye that became a symbol color for royalty.  Host a refined ship design that sat higher in the water with better sails.   large scale, specialized war ships allowed the Phoenicians to project political power into the Mediterranean world.  Developed Phoenician Alphabet Ancient Greeks:  Mycenaean’s: o Emerged about 2000 B.C.E. o Sprung up against Minoan encroachment. o Amphora: refined the shape and design which allowed the pots to be more tightly packed into the ship. o Pots from Greece show a lot about ancient life.  Greek City-State: o A city, that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state. o Athens, and Sparta o Women have a more equal position in Spartan society vs. Athens.  The term Polis refers to ancient Greek life.  The Iliad and the Odyssey were mostly fiction, but displayed economic and military power these small Greek Kingdoms were able to exert.  Athens had enormous sea power. o The Bireme and Trireme. o Very specialized war machines  Utilized iron to forge strong shields and spears Greco-Persian War:  At the same time Greece is emerging, the Persian empire has already made a name for itself.  The Persians had an enormous extremely powerful Empire that could easily conquer the Greeks.  The battle at Marathon defeated the Persian encroachment for a time.  The battle at Salamis totally defeated the Persians.  This war formed a union between all of Greece. The Peloponnesian War:  Fought between Athens and Sparta.  The Delian league is formed to help stop the Persians.  The Peloponnesian League is designed to protect Sparta.  The Spartans are able to defeat Athens after the disastrous battle at Syracuse.  Phillip II of Macedon is responsible for the mass migration into the interior of Greece. o His son was Alexander the Great. o Fights against the Persians and creates a large empire spanning from Greece to India. o Spread Greek culture into multiple regions and societies.


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