Fallacies - Week 4 Lecture 1
Fallacies - Week 4 Lecture 1 323
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Franchesca Mueller on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 323 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see CMN 323 in Communication Studies at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 CMN 323 Argumentation – Week 4 Lecture 1 Instructor: Alia Bellwood email@example.com th Office Location: Lincoln Hall, 4 Floor TA Office in pod D (Rm 4070) Office Hours: M 12pm2pm, TH 2pm3pm, and by appointment Fallacies Class Discussion: 1 person write 5 fallacies 2 people write 10 fallacies 4 people write 15 fallacies Fallacies o Water is not good for you. o This movie is on iTunes top 10 so it must be good. Appeal to popular opinion o These gummy bears are labeled fat free so they must be healthy. o I think frosted flakes are great because it says they are on the box. o Not everyone has been to Mars so they don’t know truly know if people can live there. Class Notes: Logical Fallacies Hasty Generalization o An example/generalization warrant based on a grossly insufficient or unrepresentative sample or that is otherwise highly dubious. A stereotype of prejudice. o This 400 level class is impossible to take o All 400 level classes are impossible to take Post Hoc/ False Cause o A bad Cause warrant, where an event that precedes a later event is assumed to have caused it but no clarity about how it did so. Slippery Slope o Assuming that a very small action will inevitably lead to extreme and often ludicrous outcomes. o If you allow transgender people to use the bathroom they want, there will be an increase in rape cases. Weak Analogy o A warrant by Analogy that compares two things that are not remotely alike. o Banning porn is like banning swim suits Appeal to Authority o This type of fallacy is also referred to as Argumentum ad Verecundia (argument from modesty). In this case, rather than focusing on the merits of an argument, the 1 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 arguer will try to attach their argument to a person of authority in an attempt to give credence to their argument. o If an athlete says this shoe is a better shoe without reason and people automatically like the shoe and want to buy the shoe. Ad populum o This type of appeal is when someone claims that an idea or belief is true simply because it is what most people believe o Bandwagon fallacy Ad hominem o This is when you attack the person instead of the person’s argument. This can be done either blatantly or subtly. o Arguing against trigger warnings is inhumane. o Attack arguer instead of engage in argument. o The way politicians talk to each other. Appeal to pity/ Ad Misericordiam o This is an argument based on making somebody feel sorry for another o Keeping a mother with a child on hot air balloon because you feel bad to boot her. Appeal to Ignorance o When one person uses another person’s lack of knowledge on a particular subject as evidence that their own argument is correct. Straw Man o Exaggerating, misrepresenting, or just making up an opposing argument to make them appear easy to refute. o Make a claim and have evidence but do not show how each are related to each other. Claim Warrant (sometimes the warrant is just assumed) Evidence o Omission are vital Red Herring o Going off on a tangent to distract the audience from the point at hand. This is very common in political debates. o For example “You know, that point reminds me of a story…” o Refocuses the argument on a whole different point. make connections you don’t reason Begging the question o This type of fallacy is when the conclusion of an argument is assumed in how the question is framed. o Education IS being in the classroom Equivocation o Taking advantage of ambiguity or doublemeanings in a word or phrase. o Only men are mortal so women are not moral o Seeing a sign that says parking is fine, so you assume it is okay to park Association Fallacy o Sometimes called “guilt by association,” this occurs when someone links a specific idea or practice with something or someone negative in order to infer guilt on another person. 2 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Non Sequitur o A Fallacy wherein someone asserts a conclusion that does not follow from the propositions o o Example Martin Luther King had a dream. Dreams are where Elmo and Toy Story had a party and I was invited. Fallacies in Action – examples with pictures shown on class slides False Dichotomy o There will be snow, there is global warmings Ad Populum o America must be great because everyone says so Appeal to Pity o Indiana sports fans should not be banned because they will be sad and upset. pic of an Indiana fan crying and walking away from the stadium Equivocation o “Factory Farmed “animals are not treated humanely” “Maybe that’s because they’re not human” Straw Person o Making fun of a politicians and what they are actually saying False Cause o That graduating college makes you an elitist for Starbuck. Graduating college does not necessarily make you an elitist. Begging the question o Were healthy because we eat “whole meals” Hasty generalization o Four institutions – regular store, thrift store, regular store, regular store” Given this evidence the ‘neighborhood is lost’ because there are so many stores Paper 1 info – Thesis: Arg 1 and 2 suffer weak warrants but arg 3 effectively employs personal testimony to.. Ex. Author employs 2 kinds of evidence and relies on _ value calculus. Four pages’ double spaced 11 fonts. Structure this paper based on evidence o Let the text structure your paper o Value system, evidence Which concepts are required o Concepts that seem effective o Have solid arguments that are structured and wellconstructed. This argument could be a fallacy but here’s why it really is not. 3 Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Use fallacies if you want expect I need to see Toulmin argument Look up Toulmin argument o Each paragraph should be different arguments and claims o Use evidence analysis > o Types of evidence 4
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