Week 4; Monday (I'm still typing up week 3)
Week 4; Monday (I'm still typing up week 3) PSYC 2500-001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Week 4 Mon 9/12 CH 4 Schedules of Reinforcement : specify which responses will be followed by the reinforce 1. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: every instance of the behavior is followed by the reinforce a. Acquisition: the development of a new behavior through reinforcement i. Ex: when they first begin a behavior, you will reinforce every time they do the behavior until it is well-established. This is when you switch to intermittent reinforcement schedule 2. Intermittent/partial reinforcement schedule: not every instance of the behavior is followed by the delivery of the reinforce a. Maintenance: continuation of an operant behavior with intermittent reinforcement i. Ex: used to maintain; helps operant behavior stay in place for a long period of time b. Behaviors that are reinforced continuously are extinguished very easily and rapidly; if you’re only reinforced every once in a while, the behavior will keep on i. Skinner came up with this idea in rats- they will keep pressing the lever because they never know when the food is going to come ii. Ex: gambling pays out sometimes (they get lured in because sometimes they do win and they don’t understand probability and statistics); creates superstition because sometimes it is true based on probability Fixed Ratio: a specific or fixed number of responses must occur before the reinforce is delivered o Ex: get a pellet of food every five times a rat pressed a lever Variable Ratio: a variable ratio number of responses is needed for the delivery of the reinforced (leads to partial…?) o Ex: in the lottery, we don’t know how many times it will be before we win, its variable Fixed interval: reinforced for the first response after a fixed amount of time o EX: maybe reinforce a kid for every 3-4-5 math problems a kid does Variable interval: reinforced for the first response after variable amount of time o EX: Little Johnny can’t sit still in his seat- one would reinforce Johnny for a set amount of time every time they sit still, and change the amount to a larger sum every interval Reinforcing different dimensions of behavior Any aspect of behavior upon which reinforcement is contingent can be strengthened using the principles of reinforcement Week 4 Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement: schedules of reinforcement that exist at the same time for two or more different behaviors [called concurrent operant(s)] o Factors influencing this: schedule of reinforcement; latency of reinforcement; magnitude, immediacy, response effort CH 5 Extinction: when a previously (possibly) reinforced behavior is no longer followed by a consequence which weakens and stops it from occurring in the behavior Extinction Burst: the phenomenon in which, when a behavior is no longer reinforced, it temporarily increases in frequency, intensity, or duration before it decreases o Can also lead to: increase in novel behaviors (this has always worked for me but it isn’t now so I should try something new); increase in emotional or aggressive behaviors we may not use this in a behavior-change plan because we don’t want these behaviors to lead to the next level which would be the extinction burst Spontaneous Recovery: the process in which, when an operant behavior has been extinguished, the behavior may occur again in the future in circumstances in which it was previously reinforced o Even if you’ve gotten rid of a behavior in the past, it may reoccur in the future. Be careful not to reinforce these behaviors Procedural Variations of Extinction Extinction can happen when: o positive reinforcement is no longer delivered after the behavior- weakens behavior o Aversive stimulus is no longer removed after the behavior-weakens behavior Ex: Drinking alcohol and using a pill that makes you puke every time you drink it For extinction to occur, the appropriate reinforcement for the behavior must be identified and be eliminated; biggest key is extinction is knowing what must be removed