Psych 160 Week 3
Psych 160 Week 3 Psych 160
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fu on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 160 at University of California Berkeley taught by Serena Chen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
LECTURE NOTE Lecture 4 Activity 1. 12/26/1994 2. Taipei, Taiwan 3. Wood Tavern 4. Bed, wake, snore, eat, tired, slumber, sleep, comfort What’s Social Cognition? - How we select, interpret, and remember info about others and ourselves - How this info influences our judgments and behaviors - Social cognition is about construal, sense-making, finding meaningful patters A schema is - An organized set of knowledge about a stimulus - Knowledge includes attributes associated with the stimulus, as well as relations among the attributes - Often includes specific examples of stimulus (known as exemplars) Types of schemas - Types of groups of people o Elder o Asian - Traits o Arrogance - Situations (scripts) - Ourselves - Objects Basic characteristics of schemas - We have schemas for most of what we’ve encountered in our lives o We are not necessarily accurate with our schemas, but we have a schema for almost everything - Schemas are functional o Our cognitive capacity is limited, but schemas is really efficient and save much of our capacity - Variations within individuals in the nature of schemas - Variations between individuals in the nature of schemas Effects of schemas - Influence attention & memory o Ex. We pay different level of attention on celebrity and normal people o Schema-relevant > schema-irrelevant § Restaurant: notice and remember food & service, but not color of chairs o Schema-consistent > schema-inconsistent § Professor: notice and remember _______, but less likely to remember _______ § Empirical example: librarian vs waitress schema (Cohen, 1981) Lecture 5 Schema - Influence memory and attention - Allow filling in the gaps (making inferences) - Shape interpretations of ambiguous information o Ex. Amanda judges the ideas suggested by a new intern at her husband’s advertising firm to be unlikely to succeed - Speed up processing Asch (1946) - Generous or not based on one-word difference (“warm” vs “cold”) Cantor & Mischel (1977) - Participants filled in the gaps based on schemas of Extros and Intros Markus (1977) - 3 groups of participants o IND self-schemas o DEP self-schemas o Aschematic on IND/DEP schemas available à accessible schemas à (ambiguous description) à application of schemas à schema-driven thinking Availability - Schemas can only be used if they are available Accessibility - The more accessible a schema, the more likely it will be activated 2 sources of accessibility - Temporary o Accessibility that arises from a recent event in the environment – something just happened! - Chronic o Accessibility that arises from the frequent past activation of a scheme Applicability - Relevance or “fit” of a schema to the to-be-interpreted info DISCUSSION NOTE Discussion 2 Research Methods Activity Possible limitations on They Saw a Game - Elite universities (higher school pride) - Data procedure selection (fraternity vs clubs) TEXTBOOK READING Chapter 4: Social Cognition: Thanking about People and Situations Our judgement are only as accurate as the quality of the information on which they are based, yet the information available to us in everyday life is not always representative or complete The way information is presented, including the ordering which it is presented and how it is framed, can affect the judgements we make We don’t just passively take in information. We often actively seek it out, and a pervasive bias in our information-seeking strategies can distort the conclusions we reach Our preexisting knowledge, expectations, and mental habits can influence the construal of new information and thus substantially influence judgment Two mental systems, reason and intuition, underlie social cognition, and their complex interplay determines the judgments we make Social stimuli rarely influence people’s behavior directly; they do so indirectly through the way they are interpreted ad construed Social cognition depends first of all on information Minimal information – inferring personality from physical appearance - Snap judgment o According to Janine Wilism and Alex Todorov (2006) study, a great deal of what we conclude about people based on their faces is determined almost instantaneously – the correlation between judgments made at leisure and those made under time pressure was high - The available evidence indicates there is often some validity to even extremely brief exposure to other people’s behavior – however, it’s unwise to completely rely on the judgment because in general they contain only a kernel of truth Misleading firsthand information – pluralistic ignorance - Firsthand information can be more accurate because it has the advantage of not having been filtered by someone else - However, it can also be deceptive – as when we fail to play close attention to information about events that occur before our eyes, or when we misconstrue their true meaning - It can also be under representative - Some of the firsthand information we acquire about people is inaccurate because it’s intended to be - Pluralistic ignorance: misperception of a group norm that results from observing people who are acting at variance with their private beliefs out of a concern for the social consequences; those actions reinforce the erroneous group norm o It is particularly common in situations where “toughness” is valued o Inner reality vs outer behavior Misleading firsthand information – self-fulfilling prophecies - Self-fulfilling prophecies: the tendency for people to act in ways that bring about the very thing they expect to happen - Some prophecies are self-negating, as when a driver believes “nothing bad can happen to me” and therefore drives recklessly Misleading secondhand information - Factors that influence the accuracy of secondhand information o Ideological distortions – a desire to foster certain beliefs or behaviors o Distortions in the service of entertainment – overemphasis on bad news o Effects of the bad-news bias – lead people to believe they are more at risk of victimization than they really are § Positive correlation between the amount of time spent watching TV and the fear of victimization The quality of people’s judgment derives in part from the quality of the information on which their judgments are based Countless studies have demonstrated that slight variations in the presentation of information – how it is presented and even when it is presented – can have profound effects on people’s judgment Order effects - Primacy effect – the disproportionate influence on judgment by information presented first in a body of evidence - Recency effect – the disproportionate influence on judgment by information presented last in a body of evidence
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