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Intro AT

by: McKenzie Jordan
McKenzie Jordan

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Here are the first notes we have taken since the beginning of the semester
Intro to Athletic Training
Mark Boatright
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Jordan on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1600 at Appalachian State University taught by Mark Boatright in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Athletic Training in Athletic Training at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page1 EAP Principals  ● Personnel ­ qualified personnel (credentials) ● Equipment ­ spine boards, airways, AED, etc (make sure equipment works)  ● Communication and Transportation  ● Nearest Medical Facility ­ have map ● Type of medical facility  ● Personnel Protocol  ● Annual review, rehearsal, modifications Event Planning  ● EMS, equipment and availability ● Who will provide equipment  ● Make sure equipment works ● Communication plan ● Who does on site assessment ● Responsibilities of personnel  ● Back up team  ● Universal precautions ­ protect self and patient from diseases; wear gloves, masks, etc Vital Signs  ● Pulse ­ radial or carotid artery  ○ Adult: 60­100 bpm ○ Child: 120­140 bpm  ○ Athlete: 40­60 bpm ● Respiration ­ rise/fall of chest ○ Adult: 10­25 rpm ○ Child: 20­25 rpm ● Blood Pressure ○ Adult: 120/80 ○ Child: 125/90 ● Temperature: 98.6° Skin Color  ­ Check circulation ~ pulses, capillary refill  ● Red ­ infection, swelling ● Ashy White ­ shock  ● Blue ­ lack of blood flow (cold, clammy) Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page2 Pupils ● Constricted ­ drug OD, poison ● Dilation ­ shock, heat stroke, cardiac arrest, death  ● Unequal (Anisocoria) ­ head injury, stroke  Shock (Life Threatening)  ­ Inability of heart to exert adequate pressure to circulate oxygenated blood to vital organs ­ Blood starts to pool in extremities → Sx & Sn: Rapid/weak pulse, rapid/shallow breathing ➔ Hypovolemic ­ most common (gun, knife, car) ➔ Respiratory ­ lungs fail to transfer oxygen to blood (asthma, collapsed lung) ➔ Psychogenic ­ see something gross, pass out ➔ Cardiogenic ­ cardiac arrest, heart/lungs stop ➔ Metabolic ­ poisoning ➔ Septic ­ infection (bacterial) ➔ Anaphylactic ­ allergic reaction, need epipen to reverse  Shock Management  **MEDICAL EMERGENCY, CALL 911** ● Elevate feet 8­12 inches  ● Maintain body temp ● Do not give food or drink ● ABC (airway breathing circulation) every 2­5 minutes  ● Keep patient calm  Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Four Types of Tissues:  1) Hard ­ bones 2) Soft 3) Organ 4) Corrective ­ tendons  Skin  *Organ tissue  ­ First line of defense against injury a) Epidermis ­ superficial layer b) Dermis ­ middle layer c) Hyperthermus ­ inner layer, 50% fat ● Wound: break in the skin ● Stretch Marks Bones ● 206 bones in human body  ● Function: chemical factories, posture/support, protect, movement a) Axial Skeleton: skull, spine, pelvis b) Appendicular Skeleton: arms, legs ­ Bone Shapes: short (fingers), long (femur), irregular (pelvis), flat (skull)  **Diaphysis: shaft of bone **Epiphysis: end of bone (growth plates) → Bones stop growing after the age of 27 → Need Calcium and Vitamin D Cartilage ­ Covers ends of bones and space between bony joints ● Function: joint absorption, smooth bone movements a) Hylan Cartilage: covers bone ends b) Maniskye Muscles Muscle contractions allow for:  1) Acceleration 2) Deceleration 3) Stop Movement 4) Posture **Ligaments = bone to bone **Tendons  = muscle to bone Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 Joints ~Classification vs. Type~ 1) Diarthrodial (hip, shoulder)  ● Joints with synovial joints, joint capsules, lots of movement ○ Hinge (elbow) ○ Multiaxial Joints      2) Amphiarthrodial  ● Joints that have cartilage attaching two bones together (cartilaginous joints ­ breathing (ribs,  sternum))      3) Synarthrodial (skull plates) ● Immovable joints ● Fibrous joints **Shoulder is ball and socket joint **Elbow and Knee are hinge joints **Hip is multiaxial joint Wounds ­ Break in the skin a) Incision: cut with smooth borders (surgery) b) Abrasion: scraping off layers of skin (falling off bike) c) Laceration: cut with jagged edges d) Contusion: closed wound, bleeding under the skin (bruise) e) Avulsion: partial tearing away of body part (blister) f) Amputation: open wound in which body part is completely severed off from body g) Puncture: sharp object penetrates body (knife­­becomes easily affected) Wound Care ­ Universal Precautions  a) Wash hands thoroughly b) Apply gloves c) Direct pressure d) Sterile dressing e) Clean wound with sterile solution f) Dress and bandage g) Change dressing regularly Stages of Soft Tissue Healing ~ Stage 1 ­ acute inflammatory stage (0­6) → phagocytes, leukocytes (heal wound), platelets (form scab) ~ Stage 2 ­ repair stage proliferation (3­21) → fibroblast Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 3 ~ Stage 3 ­ remodeling maturation (1 year)  Bone Fracture/Injuries  a) Avulsion Fx: tearing away of bone from attachment b) Stress Fx: chronic overuse, microscopic bone fracture c) Spiral Fx: long bones, spirals up bone, torsion d) Longitude Fx: fracture parallel to bone, length of bone e) Compression Fx: opposing forces crush bone f) Oblique Fx: across bone and angulated g) Commuted Fx: fractures into many pieces, “bone explosion” h) Greenstick Fx: in adolescents, bends/breaks but splinters i) Transverse Fx: straight across bone, perpendicular to bone j) Depression Fx: happens in skull k) Ephyseal Fx: fracture through growth plates ● Open Fx: break in skin ● CLosed Fx: no break in skin Stages of Bone Healing ~ Stage 1 ­ [1­4 days] Osteoclast vs. Osteoblast (healing cells, calcium callus) ~ Stage 2 ­ [3 weeks to 4 months] Calcium callus forms ~ Stage 3 ­ [1 year] Bone absorbs callus, even margins  Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Strengthening Principals  ● Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) ­ progressively increase the load over time allows the  body to adapt to increased demands ● Kinematic Change ­ series of movements on multiple joints working together to produce  movement, ex. Walking ○ Open Kinetic Change (nonfunctional) ­ working in a non weight bearing position ○ Closed Kinetic Change (functional) ­ work in a weight bearing position, ex. Swimmer ● Overload Principle ­ in order for a muscle to increase in strength gains it has to be stressed  beyond the demands of previous workout ● Specificity in Training ­ body will adapt to specific demands placed on it Types of Muscle Contractions  ● Isotonic ­ moving a joint through full ROM with fixed amount of resistance  ○ Concentric: shortening, stronger ○ Eccentric: lengthening, breaking muscles, NEED TO WORK ● Isometric ­ muscle tension with no joint movement ● Isokinetic ­ controlling speed of movement with resistance ○ Resistance is accommodating ­ controlled accommodating resistance ● Muscle Strength ­ exert force against resistance ● Muscle Endurance ­ performing repetitive movements over an extended period of time ● Power ­ ability to exert force quickly ● Joint Flexibility ­ lengthening tissue to improve ROM **ALWAYS STRETCH A WARM MUSCLE **NEVER STRETCH A COLD MUSCLE Types of Stretching  1) Static ­ isolate muscle, hold stretch for 30 seconds then release 2) Ballistic ­ BAD IDEA, balancing stretch 3) Dynamic ­ moving a limb/body part through ROM ● Probia Neuro Facilitation (PNF) ­ stretch, relax with tension  Specificity of Training  **Make sure you’re ready for return to play** 1) Work part of body that hurts → Work other muscles       2) Probial Ception: Balance → Knowing where your body is in time and space Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordanl) Page 1 Heat Conditions a) Thermoregulation ­ controlled by hypothalamus (brain stem) i) Process by which body maintains heat b) Heat Regulation i) Sweating ii) shivering ** Hypothermia ­ body temp drops **Hyperthermia ­ body temp rises  **Normal Body Temp. = 98.6 → most accurate reading through rectal thermometer Sources of Heat a) Radiation ­ loss of heat from warm source to cooler source through thermal energy b) Conduction ­ direct transfer of heat through solid, liquid, gas from warm to cooler source c) Convection ­ loss of heat through environmental and physical conditions d) Evaporation ­ loss of heat through perspiration  i) Sweat Evaporation/ Body Cooling 1) Skin surface ­ larger, more efficient to cooling system 2) Temp. and Relative humidity ­ higher temp./ higher humidity = dangerous 3) Speed of air currents ­ ex. Breeze Heat Tolerance a) Acclimatized to weather (7­10 days) b) Fluid replacement (prevention mechanism) c) Electrolyte replacement (salts, potassium, magnesium, zinc) d) Clothing (loose fit, lightly colored) e) OTC (ex. advil), Rx (prescription), supplements (ex. creatine), diuretics (make you pee, caffeine) f) Weight charts (check weight before, check weight after) **More you sweat = more you drink** Types of Heat Injuries ­ Heat Illness in General: Heat stress causes fatigue, thirst, lethargy (confusion), flushed skin,  headache, visual disturbances (diplopia (double vision), floaters) 1) Heat Cramps 2) Heat Exhaustion  3) Heat Stroke ­ body temp. 104° or higher, 20­30 min to revise Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordanl) Page 2 I. Heat Cramps [First] ­ Painful, involuntary muscle spasms ­ Large muscle groups ­ Fatigue ­ Emotional change → Rx: Prevention, fluid replacement, passive stretching, muscle cooling    II. Heat Exhaustion [Next] ­ Ineffective blood circulation ­ Drop in plasma volume ­ Blood pools in peripheral blood vessels ­ Excessive sweating   III. Heat Stroke *MEDICAL EMERGENCY ­ Core temp. rises ­ Decrease in blood volume ­ Thermoregulatory system malfunctions ­ Organ failure and death if not reversed → HEAT EXHAUSTION VS. HEAT STROKE 1. Moist/ clammy skin 1. Dry hot skin 2. Pupils dilated 2. Pupils constricted 3. Normal/subnormal temp. = 98.6°­102° 3. Very high body temp. 104° Raynaud's Syndrome **allergy to cold ­ fingers/toes get frostbite ­ More common in females ­ Effects fingers ­ Can lead to frostbite ­ Cigarette smoking/ alcohol can increase the effect Frostbite  ~ 1st Degree ­ outermost layer of skin will burn, no necrotic tissue loss ~ 2nd Degree ­ fluid blisters with no damage, some tissue damage ~ 3rd Degree ­ kills all three layers of skin, necrotic, tissue death  → rewarm SLOWLY!!! → do NOT put in warm water → do NOT bend on frostbitten areas (extremity may break off) Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordanl) Page 3 Lightning Injuries a) Direct Strike b) Conduct Injury c) Side Flash/Splash d) Ground Current e) Blunt Trauma  ❖ Flash Bayne Method ­ If there's thunder, there's lightning ­ Thunder first ­ Usually within 5 mile radius → 1 mile = 5 seconds Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 What is AT? ● First responder, certified cpr  ● Need a degree, specialized ● Specifically educated in dealing with prevention, care, treatment, and rehabilitation of active  young population  Sports Medicine Broad Team ● Not interchangeable with  AT ● Includes: physicians, chiropractic, cardiology, strength coaches, massage therapist, etc. ➔                Parents           Coach    ATHLETE   Physician                         Central Team          AT do assessments     Physicians do diagnosing  Peripheral Team  ● Specialize assistance to central tam Ex. dentist, PT, strength coach, cardiologist, etc.  AT Organization  ● Average age: 28 ● 60% female  ● NATA: National Athletic Training Association  ● NATA­BOC: National Athletic Training Association Board of Certification (independant  organization)  ● NATA­PAC: National Athletic Training Association Political Action Committee (make game  safer) ● MAATA: Mid­Atlantic Athletic Training Association ● NCATA: North Carolina Athletic Training Association  ● CAATE: course work appropriate for degree ● Diversity: equality of race * National → District → State * Role Delineation Model  ● REQUIRED STANDARDS TO PRACTICE IN THE PROFESSION Ex. prevention clinical evaluation, immediate care, treatment and rehabilitation of  athletic injuries, organization and administration, legal and ethic standards  Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 ATC Educational Standards ● CAATE: commision on accreditation of AT education  ­ Domains of practice; cognitive psychomotor , professional behavior, clinical proficiencies (able  to perform skill)  Credentials of ATC  1. Licensure: state licensure to practice in order to protect the public; most restrictive 2. Certification: national certification, require board exam 3. Registration: register w/ state government, lots of liability; least restrictive  Legal Consideration  **LEGAL LIABILITIES: TORTS**  1. Negligence: legal wrong, characterized by the failure to act as a responsible prudent person  would act in the same situation; CALL 911 FIRST!!! 2. Gross Negligence: failure to provide even the slightest amount of care; total disregard for the  safety of others, neglect to do anything 3. Assumption of Risk: making sure that participants of a particular sports understand the risk and  dangers of the sport 4. Permission to treat/inform consent (important for minors­ exception: loss of consciousness or  life or death) 5. Proximate Cause: the way ATC acts while performing duties that leads to a certain outcome Protection from Liability ● Good equipment ● Documentation (if you never write it down, it never happened) ● CPR/CEU (Continuing Education Units) ● Confidentiality ● Build Trust ● P.P.E. (preparticipation exam) ● Exit Interview ● Ethics ­ do what you feel is right  Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Body Plane (Anatomical Position)  1) Frontal/Coronal Plane ­ Anterior and Posterior segments (bicep curl) 2) Transverse Plane ­ Superior and Inferior (belly button; calf raises) 3) Sagittal Plane ­ Right and Left (trist/rotate) ● Anatomical Position ● Midline ● Subduction: towards midline ● Abduction: away midline ● Lateral  ❖ Movements of: Body  1) Flexion: decrease in joint angle 2) Extension: increase in joint angle 3) Abduction: movement AWAY from body midline 4) Adduction: movement TOWARDS body midline Foot  1) Pronation ­ outward heels 2) Supination ­ inward heels Ankle 1) Plantar Flexion ­ point toe away 2) Dorsi Flexion ­ point toes up  3) Inversion ­ inward 4) Eversion ­ outward Knee  1) Flexion ­ 0° straight knee, toe up 2) Extension ­ 90° bend knee, straight down 3) Slight Rotation ­ 10°­15°, tibia rotation  Hip  1) Flexion  2) Extension 3) Abduction 4) Adduction 5) Internal Rotation 6) External Rotation  7) Circumduction Trunk 1) Flexion ­ bend over 2) Extension ­ stand straight up 3) Rotation ­ Twist 4) Side Bending Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 Shoulder 0°/ 0°,0°/90°,90°/0°,90° 1) Flexion­ zombie walk 2) Extension ­ arms by side 3) Adduction 4) Abduction 5) Internal Rotation 6) External Rotation Elbow  1) Flexion 2) Extension  Wrist  1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Ulnar Deviation 4) Radial Deviation 5) Pronation 6) Supination Neck 1) Flexion ­ chin to chest 2) Extension ­ head up 3) Rotation ­ chin to shoulder 4) Side Bending ­ ear to shoulder  Thumb #1 1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Abduction 4) Adduction 5) Opposition Fingers #2­5 1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Abduction 4) Adduction


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