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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Jordan on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1600 at Appalachian State University taught by Mark Boatright in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Athletic Training in Athletic Training at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page1 EAP Principals ● Personnel qualified personnel (credentials) ● Equipment spine boards, airways, AED, etc (make sure equipment works) ● Communication and Transportation ● Nearest Medical Facility have map ● Type of medical facility ● Personnel Protocol ● Annual review, rehearsal, modifications Event Planning ● EMS, equipment and availability ● Who will provide equipment ● Make sure equipment works ● Communication plan ● Who does on site assessment ● Responsibilities of personnel ● Back up team ● Universal precautions protect self and patient from diseases; wear gloves, masks, etc Vital Signs ● Pulse radial or carotid artery ○ Adult: 60100 bpm ○ Child: 120140 bpm ○ Athlete: 4060 bpm ● Respiration rise/fall of chest ○ Adult: 1025 rpm ○ Child: 2025 rpm ● Blood Pressure ○ Adult: 120/80 ○ Child: 125/90 ● Temperature: 98.6° Skin Color Check circulation ~ pulses, capillary refill ● Red infection, swelling ● Ashy White shock ● Blue lack of blood flow (cold, clammy) Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page2 Pupils ● Constricted drug OD, poison ● Dilation shock, heat stroke, cardiac arrest, death ● Unequal (Anisocoria) head injury, stroke Shock (Life Threatening) Inability of heart to exert adequate pressure to circulate oxygenated blood to vital organs Blood starts to pool in extremities → Sx & Sn: Rapid/weak pulse, rapid/shallow breathing ➔ Hypovolemic most common (gun, knife, car) ➔ Respiratory lungs fail to transfer oxygen to blood (asthma, collapsed lung) ➔ Psychogenic see something gross, pass out ➔ Cardiogenic cardiac arrest, heart/lungs stop ➔ Metabolic poisoning ➔ Septic infection (bacterial) ➔ Anaphylactic allergic reaction, need epipen to reverse Shock Management **MEDICAL EMERGENCY, CALL 911** ● Elevate feet 812 inches ● Maintain body temp ● Do not give food or drink ● ABC (airway breathing circulation) every 25 minutes ● Keep patient calm Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Four Types of Tissues: 1) Hard bones 2) Soft 3) Organ 4) Corrective tendons Skin *Organ tissue First line of defense against injury a) Epidermis superficial layer b) Dermis middle layer c) Hyperthermus inner layer, 50% fat ● Wound: break in the skin ● Stretch Marks Bones ● 206 bones in human body ● Function: chemical factories, posture/support, protect, movement a) Axial Skeleton: skull, spine, pelvis b) Appendicular Skeleton: arms, legs Bone Shapes: short (fingers), long (femur), irregular (pelvis), flat (skull) **Diaphysis: shaft of bone **Epiphysis: end of bone (growth plates) → Bones stop growing after the age of 27 → Need Calcium and Vitamin D Cartilage Covers ends of bones and space between bony joints ● Function: joint absorption, smooth bone movements a) Hylan Cartilage: covers bone ends b) Maniskye Muscles Muscle contractions allow for: 1) Acceleration 2) Deceleration 3) Stop Movement 4) Posture **Ligaments = bone to bone **Tendons = muscle to bone Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 Joints ~Classification vs. Type~ 1) Diarthrodial (hip, shoulder) ● Joints with synovial joints, joint capsules, lots of movement ○ Hinge (elbow) ○ Multiaxial Joints 2) Amphiarthrodial ● Joints that have cartilage attaching two bones together (cartilaginous joints breathing (ribs, sternum)) 3) Synarthrodial (skull plates) ● Immovable joints ● Fibrous joints **Shoulder is ball and socket joint **Elbow and Knee are hinge joints **Hip is multiaxial joint Wounds Break in the skin a) Incision: cut with smooth borders (surgery) b) Abrasion: scraping off layers of skin (falling off bike) c) Laceration: cut with jagged edges d) Contusion: closed wound, bleeding under the skin (bruise) e) Avulsion: partial tearing away of body part (blister) f) Amputation: open wound in which body part is completely severed off from body g) Puncture: sharp object penetrates body (knifebecomes easily affected) Wound Care Universal Precautions a) Wash hands thoroughly b) Apply gloves c) Direct pressure d) Sterile dressing e) Clean wound with sterile solution f) Dress and bandage g) Change dressing regularly Stages of Soft Tissue Healing ~ Stage 1 acute inflammatory stage (06) → phagocytes, leukocytes (heal wound), platelets (form scab) ~ Stage 2 repair stage proliferation (321) → fibroblast Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 3 ~ Stage 3 remodeling maturation (1 year) Bone Fracture/Injuries a) Avulsion Fx: tearing away of bone from attachment b) Stress Fx: chronic overuse, microscopic bone fracture c) Spiral Fx: long bones, spirals up bone, torsion d) Longitude Fx: fracture parallel to bone, length of bone e) Compression Fx: opposing forces crush bone f) Oblique Fx: across bone and angulated g) Commuted Fx: fractures into many pieces, “bone explosion” h) Greenstick Fx: in adolescents, bends/breaks but splinters i) Transverse Fx: straight across bone, perpendicular to bone j) Depression Fx: happens in skull k) Ephyseal Fx: fracture through growth plates ● Open Fx: break in skin ● CLosed Fx: no break in skin Stages of Bone Healing ~ Stage 1 [14 days] Osteoclast vs. Osteoblast (healing cells, calcium callus) ~ Stage 2 [3 weeks to 4 months] Calcium callus forms ~ Stage 3 [1 year] Bone absorbs callus, even margins Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Strengthening Principals ● Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) progressively increase the load over time allows the body to adapt to increased demands ● Kinematic Change series of movements on multiple joints working together to produce movement, ex. Walking ○ Open Kinetic Change (nonfunctional) working in a non weight bearing position ○ Closed Kinetic Change (functional) work in a weight bearing position, ex. Swimmer ● Overload Principle in order for a muscle to increase in strength gains it has to be stressed beyond the demands of previous workout ● Specificity in Training body will adapt to specific demands placed on it Types of Muscle Contractions ● Isotonic moving a joint through full ROM with fixed amount of resistance ○ Concentric: shortening, stronger ○ Eccentric: lengthening, breaking muscles, NEED TO WORK ● Isometric muscle tension with no joint movement ● Isokinetic controlling speed of movement with resistance ○ Resistance is accommodating controlled accommodating resistance ● Muscle Strength exert force against resistance ● Muscle Endurance performing repetitive movements over an extended period of time ● Power ability to exert force quickly ● Joint Flexibility lengthening tissue to improve ROM **ALWAYS STRETCH A WARM MUSCLE **NEVER STRETCH A COLD MUSCLE Types of Stretching 1) Static isolate muscle, hold stretch for 30 seconds then release 2) Ballistic BAD IDEA, balancing stretch 3) Dynamic moving a limb/body part through ROM ● Probia Neuro Facilitation (PNF) stretch, relax with tension Specificity of Training **Make sure you’re ready for return to play** 1) Work part of body that hurts → Work other muscles 2) Probial Ception: Balance → Knowing where your body is in time and space Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordanl) Page 1 Heat Conditions a) Thermoregulation controlled by hypothalamus (brain stem) i) Process by which body maintains heat b) Heat Regulation i) Sweating ii) shivering ** Hypothermia body temp drops **Hyperthermia body temp rises **Normal Body Temp. = 98.6 → most accurate reading through rectal thermometer Sources of Heat a) Radiation loss of heat from warm source to cooler source through thermal energy b) Conduction direct transfer of heat through solid, liquid, gas from warm to cooler source c) Convection loss of heat through environmental and physical conditions d) Evaporation loss of heat through perspiration i) Sweat Evaporation/ Body Cooling 1) Skin surface larger, more efficient to cooling system 2) Temp. and Relative humidity higher temp./ higher humidity = dangerous 3) Speed of air currents ex. Breeze Heat Tolerance a) Acclimatized to weather (710 days) b) Fluid replacement (prevention mechanism) c) Electrolyte replacement (salts, potassium, magnesium, zinc) d) Clothing (loose fit, lightly colored) e) OTC (ex. advil), Rx (prescription), supplements (ex. creatine), diuretics (make you pee, caffeine) f) Weight charts (check weight before, check weight after) **More you sweat = more you drink** Types of Heat Injuries Heat Illness in General: Heat stress causes fatigue, thirst, lethargy (confusion), flushed skin, headache, visual disturbances (diplopia (double vision), floaters) 1) Heat Cramps 2) Heat Exhaustion 3) Heat Stroke body temp. 104° or higher, 2030 min to revise Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordanl) Page 2 I. Heat Cramps [First] Painful, involuntary muscle spasms Large muscle groups Fatigue Emotional change → Rx: Prevention, fluid replacement, passive stretching, muscle cooling II. Heat Exhaustion [Next] Ineffective blood circulation Drop in plasma volume Blood pools in peripheral blood vessels Excessive sweating III. Heat Stroke *MEDICAL EMERGENCY Core temp. rises Decrease in blood volume Thermoregulatory system malfunctions Organ failure and death if not reversed → HEAT EXHAUSTION VS. HEAT STROKE 1. Moist/ clammy skin 1. Dry hot skin 2. Pupils dilated 2. Pupils constricted 3. Normal/subnormal temp. = 98.6°102° 3. Very high body temp. 104° Raynaud's Syndrome **allergy to cold fingers/toes get frostbite More common in females Effects fingers Can lead to frostbite Cigarette smoking/ alcohol can increase the effect Frostbite ~ 1st Degree outermost layer of skin will burn, no necrotic tissue loss ~ 2nd Degree fluid blisters with no damage, some tissue damage ~ 3rd Degree kills all three layers of skin, necrotic, tissue death → rewarm SLOWLY!!! → do NOT put in warm water → do NOT bend on frostbitten areas (extremity may break off) Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordanl) Page 3 Lightning Injuries a) Direct Strike b) Conduct Injury c) Side Flash/Splash d) Ground Current e) Blunt Trauma ❖ Flash Bayne Method If there's thunder, there's lightning Thunder first Usually within 5 mile radius → 1 mile = 5 seconds Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 What is AT? ● First responder, certified cpr ● Need a degree, specialized ● Specifically educated in dealing with prevention, care, treatment, and rehabilitation of active young population Sports Medicine Broad Team ● Not interchangeable with AT ● Includes: physicians, chiropractic, cardiology, strength coaches, massage therapist, etc. ➔ Parents Coach ATHLETE Physician Central Team AT do assessments Physicians do diagnosing Peripheral Team ● Specialize assistance to central tam Ex. dentist, PT, strength coach, cardiologist, etc. AT Organization ● Average age: 28 ● 60% female ● NATA: National Athletic Training Association ● NATABOC: National Athletic Training Association Board of Certification (independant organization) ● NATAPAC: National Athletic Training Association Political Action Committee (make game safer) ● MAATA: MidAtlantic Athletic Training Association ● NCATA: North Carolina Athletic Training Association ● CAATE: course work appropriate for degree ● Diversity: equality of race * National → District → State * Role Delineation Model ● REQUIRED STANDARDS TO PRACTICE IN THE PROFESSION Ex. prevention clinical evaluation, immediate care, treatment and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, organization and administration, legal and ethic standards Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 ATC Educational Standards ● CAATE: commision on accreditation of AT education Domains of practice; cognitive psychomotor , professional behavior, clinical proficiencies (able to perform skill) Credentials of ATC 1. Licensure: state licensure to practice in order to protect the public; most restrictive 2. Certification: national certification, require board exam 3. Registration: register w/ state government, lots of liability; least restrictive Legal Consideration **LEGAL LIABILITIES: TORTS** 1. Negligence: legal wrong, characterized by the failure to act as a responsible prudent person would act in the same situation; CALL 911 FIRST!!! 2. Gross Negligence: failure to provide even the slightest amount of care; total disregard for the safety of others, neglect to do anything 3. Assumption of Risk: making sure that participants of a particular sports understand the risk and dangers of the sport 4. Permission to treat/inform consent (important for minors exception: loss of consciousness or life or death) 5. Proximate Cause: the way ATC acts while performing duties that leads to a certain outcome Protection from Liability ● Good equipment ● Documentation (if you never write it down, it never happened) ● CPR/CEU (Continuing Education Units) ● Confidentiality ● Build Trust ● P.P.E. (preparticipation exam) ● Exit Interview ● Ethics do what you feel is right Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Body Plane (Anatomical Position) 1) Frontal/Coronal Plane Anterior and Posterior segments (bicep curl) 2) Transverse Plane Superior and Inferior (belly button; calf raises) 3) Sagittal Plane Right and Left (trist/rotate) ● Anatomical Position ● Midline ● Subduction: towards midline ● Abduction: away midline ● Lateral ❖ Movements of: Body 1) Flexion: decrease in joint angle 2) Extension: increase in joint angle 3) Abduction: movement AWAY from body midline 4) Adduction: movement TOWARDS body midline Foot 1) Pronation outward heels 2) Supination inward heels Ankle 1) Plantar Flexion point toe away 2) Dorsi Flexion point toes up 3) Inversion inward 4) Eversion outward Knee 1) Flexion 0° straight knee, toe up 2) Extension 90° bend knee, straight down 3) Slight Rotation 10°15°, tibia rotation Hip 1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Abduction 4) Adduction 5) Internal Rotation 6) External Rotation 7) Circumduction Trunk 1) Flexion bend over 2) Extension stand straight up 3) Rotation Twist 4) Side Bending Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 104 Mark Boatright 8/25/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 Shoulder 0°/ 0°,0°/90°,90°/0°,90° 1) Flexion zombie walk 2) Extension arms by side 3) Adduction 4) Abduction 5) Internal Rotation 6) External Rotation Elbow 1) Flexion 2) Extension Wrist 1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Ulnar Deviation 4) Radial Deviation 5) Pronation 6) Supination Neck 1) Flexion chin to chest 2) Extension head up 3) Rotation chin to shoulder 4) Side Bending ear to shoulder Thumb #1 1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Abduction 4) Adduction 5) Opposition Fingers #25 1) Flexion 2) Extension 3) Abduction 4) Adduction
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