COM 107 Class Notes
COM 107 Class Notes COM 107
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Riley Didier on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by S. Hollenback in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Communications and Society in Newhouse at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
COM 107 9/1 Media have the power to: Set our agenda o What to think about not what to think o Media survey the landscape and decide what’s important; bind us together vs. create a feeding frenzy, exploit tragedy, or focus on the trivial Because… Who sets the media’s agenda? Frame events o Power to frame events and trends: how stories are told vs. make us passive in accepting those POVs Engage or entertain us o Power to engage and entertain us: expose us to arts, ideas, cultures, and experiences vs. fill our hours, let us escape or veg out Transmit values o Power to transmit values: to socialize us – to shape popular culture, to influence young people, especially, to widen our awareness vs. believe the media’s view of ourselves/our world Support our economic system o Power to support our market: driven economy via marketing, advertising, branding – getting info about products and services vs. making us want to buy, buy, buy or be more materialistic Create an open marketplace on which democracy depends o Power to create an “open marketplace of ideas” on which democracy depends; be a watchdog on government vs. make us cynical about politics or apathetic; often cover only mainstream ideas and issues, sometimes superficially *know terms for exam Ch. 1 Lascaux and Chauvet prehistoric cave paintings from around the world (video) During this time, people would barely communicate and didn’t know the world like we do today o About 5,000 years late we have an alphabet It was a time where they didn’t know that we could all create fire They would have to listen, today we hear but do not listen o News was very slow to hear and to be told and shared Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication: Oral and Written Eras in Communication o The first book was from China, but was a scroll Print Revolution o Gutenberg and the print press Electronic Era o Photography began worldwide in 1837 o Telegraph began worldwide in 1840 o Moving pictures were created worldwide in 1896 o Radio was created but made big in America in the 1930’s Sound is put with movies in 1929 Digital Era o Television was created in 1936 (Hitler Olympics) but was celebrated around the world in 1950’s Television was in the states in 1939 o Computers began in the 1940’s and personal computers come into existence in the early 1940’s *Mass Communications (memorize): Mass communications is a process (not just one way) within a particular political and economic system whereby large, complex, formal, highly competitive ORGANIZATIONS (cultural industries) with multiple gatekeepers which are expensive to operate, and which (usually) exist to make profit, CREATE and TRANSMIT public messages through different channels to luge, heterogonous, geographically scattered, self-selecting AUDIENCES with individual selective filters, which are becoming more niche, who usually choose to receive messages, but INTERPRET, RECONFIGURE, or REJECT THEM and who give limited, delayed, and quantitative FEEDBACK to “the large, complex, competitive organizations which create and transmit…” COM 107 9/6 Prediction of Global Media: Marshal McLuhan’s GLOBAL VILLAGE two areas we think globally o Disease & Environment Ben Bagdikian’s GLOBAL OWNERSHIP called his book in the 80’s a Media Monopoly Campbell says the media is an Oligopoly a few firms dominate the industry *What’s led to this explosion of global media corporations and digital giants? Globalization = global markets and specialization Media Convergence of digital Technology and Business o Technological merging of media content across various platforms o Business model that has many media holdings under one huge corporate umbrella Consolidation and Mergermania (corporate parents keep brand names) o Keeping the media entity with the name that the audience is familiar with Deregulation (and Privatization) o Deregulate the private businesses governments regulation on the companies has decreased (this mentality is dominate) o Telecommunication Act of 1996 (in Campbell) Deregulation trumps privatization o In the 80’s and 90’s there were state run, government owned TV channels had a trend of selling a state run television program to a private market-driven corporations (privatization) Population Patterns = (growth where consumers have expendable income & infrastructure) o Have income, infrastructure, population followed population that would benefit them (i.e., the world’s population and America’s population, largest democracy in the world – India, largest population in the world – China) o These places can now afford the media (i.e., iPhones) the exchanges of media is increasing Synergy – the combined working together of two or more parts of a system so that the combined effect is greater together than apart (think of Lion King example: movie vhs products broadway sequel & Oprah example) *BE PREPARED TO GIVE EXAMPLE OF SYNERGY *Types of Global Media Moguls: AOL and Time Warner: o AOL – Internet service o Time Warner – News service TIME, Ent. Weekly, People, Sports Illustrated, etc. Warner Bros film, home entertainment, music Time Warner Cable (sold to Comcast in 2014) bought CNN (TNT, TBS, TCM, Atlanta Braves) Bidding in 2014: COMCAST and Murdoch w/ drew Disney Corporation: o Entertainment & Animation Including films, stage musicals, music, ice shows, etc. o Parks & Resorts (all over the world) Not always successful but it’s a brand we know o Consumer Products (as in Disney stores) o Media Networks ABC (stations and network) ESPN (all over the world) Larger demographic that they didn’t draw with their other three things Pixar in 2006 Marvel Comics 2009 Star Wars 2013 Sony o Software and Hardware o Columbia Pictures Bertelsmann (Germany) private firm in 50 nations in the world o Book publishing – worldwide Largest: Random House, Knopf/Doubleday, audio books Book clubs o Magazines in Europe National Geographic o Music: BMG (w/ Sony until 2009) o Europe’s largest broadcasting corporation 22+ TV stations, 18+radio stations Germany, Belgium, Greece, Spain, Hungry, Netherlands Comcast o From GE to Comcast today…. GE (2009) sold NBC & Universal NBC Sports, CNBC, MCNBC, Bravo, USA, Telemundo, Syfy, Oxygen, Weather Channel to Comcast – largest cable in US (Philadelphia Flyers, 10 regional sports networks) Universal pictures and theme parks to Comcast Viacom (has major control – Sumner Redstone) thinks the corporation should stay in the family but it is “up for grabs” and his daughter will be head of the corporation o CBS and Viacom (merged in 2000 as Viacom, split in 2006) – officially together, legally CBS network TV stations, radio stations Paramount Pictures Viacom Cable: Nickelodeon, MTV networks, VH1, UPN, CMT, BET, Comedy Central, Showtime (Cradle to Grave) Outdoor Advertising News Corp (Rupert Murdock and family daughter and 2 sons) o Newspapers and satellites over globe (light entertainment and sports) begin negotiating with sports to broadcast on satellite (cricket, soccer popular sports) Scandals: In Britain – News of World (published emails in the paper) closed it when he found out and in USA – Roger Ailes and attitude towards females (kicked him out) *Tiananmen Square th o 20 Century FOX Films o FOX… built a fourth network (went to the independent networks to buy them) Negotiated with the NFL to pay more than ABC, CBS, and NBC Aired “Married with Children” and shows with black people (one of the first to do so) Went with alternative programming Added the news eventually o Created Myspace and sold it quickly after for much less than he bought it for o Bought the Wall Street Journal o 2013: News Corp: publishing 21 Century FOX: TV Cable o Strategies: “Fortune favors the Brave” News Corp buys high culture and low culture Hires professional, experienced talent keeps them around long and is very loyal to long-term employees Buys both content and distribution Tends to move fast, often times the first to try things Smart because he went with light entertainment and sports knows people will appeal Attitude: has an ethical core and will stay with it he hasn’t gotten into music or cable COM 107 9/8 Ch. 2 How do we get from emergence to convergence? o Emergence: when it’s a novelty and Convergence: older media reconfiguring with new media o Campbell stresses the outstanding impact of the internet The penetration of the internet in this country – 87% Percentage of young people who use the internet – 97% Penetration rates in the world – 50% North America – 89% Europe – 73.9% Australia – 73.3% Latin America – 61.5% Middle East – 53.7% World Average – 49.2% Asia – 44.2% Africa – 28.6% Top 20 Countries – 53.2% Rest of the World – 46.8% Economics and Issues of Internet: Issue 1: Ownership = who controls the internet? o Digital giants before the 2000’s Microsoft AOL Google Yahoo Issue2: Digital turn to the giants today (2000’s): o Google o Facebook o Amazon o Apple o Microsoft Issue 3: Security o How to keep personal info (social security number, credit cards, etc.) private in the world where we easily give away personal info as we socialize, buy and search? o AND U.S. Government Surveillance okay for bad guys but… do we care if NSA includes us ordinary citizens in their sweep? Issue 4: What’s appropriate content online? o Porn? Violence? Hateful ideas? Conspiracies? Then who regulates it all and how globally? Issue 5: Preventing a Digital Divide = Information-Haves vs. Information-have nots Issue 6: Net Neutrality = every user/site has right to same internet access and speed o How to prevent preferential treatment to highest bidders Issue 7: Alternative Voices o Can we have open source software with all sharing freely? Issue 8: Internet’s Impact on Democracy o Greater citizen participation in process o Easier access to divers viewpoints? Or to ones like our own? o Effect on costs, campaigns, issues raised? o Are we more aware citizens? Advantages and Disadvantages of Mega Media Corporations: Traditional and Digital Advantages: o Uniform consistency of product or service often built on global branding and latest creation/product or service Brand loyalty o Shared risk (across the corporation) o New digital sites/creators can grow popular very fast o Reduce costs (economies of scale) The idea that we only have one of something it will be expensive but if we have more the cost will decrease o Use synergy to cross-promote content and talent o Offer advertisers great cross-media or cross-platform deals o Can we be counterweight to government (& regulators)? Advantage for companies but maybe not us Disadvantages: o Pressure from Wall Street for immediate profits (stockholders vs. consumers/audiences) o Possible conflicts of interest (journalists reporting on their corporate parents…or not) o Concentrated power in only a few hands (reduces diversity of voices in the marketplace; minorities find it difficult and expensive to enter arena and surely to own media) o Tend to support the status quo (taking few risks so often slight variations. Something works? Tweak the format or talent, spin offs) COM 107 9/13 Guest Speaker: Kevin O’Neil Advertising The power of knowing something rather than thinking something o Uncle Lou o People who know, rule in the advertising world Strategy From the Greek, strategos, meaning “generalship” The art of devising or employing plans in pursuit of a goal, a careful plan or method o What are a general’s concerns? The battlefield itself – its terrain, conditions The nature of the adversary – strengths, weaknesses, habits, tendencies, history His/her own army – size, skills, organization, assets, strengths/weaknesses, history Weaponry Objective: defend, attack, diversion, etc. Advertising From the Latin, ad vetere, meaning “to draw attention to” Attracting attention is easy o What kind of attention and whose? What is the quality of the attention attracted: casual or intense, fleeting or sustained? Whose attention is attracted: a promising, potential customer or an irrelevant passerby? o We’ve just defined the central dilemma an advertising person faces. How to produce disruptive, original, attention-getting creative work. How to ensure it has a strategic foundation aligned with the brand’s current meaning, its ambitions and the customer’s needs. o It requires a unique cast of mind or combination of minds to manage this dilemma Encourage and appreciate bold, provocative creative work. Defend the brand’s strategic interests and integrity. o Advertising favors the peripatetic mind Wide-ranging curiosity Distillers, bundlers, compressors (extremely powerful people) The Newhouse model vs. narrower “Ad School” approach “If you want to stumble upon something, you need to get up and walk around.” –Einstein The Advertising Industry A lens through which every revolution eventually passes. o Technological revolution: Ford’s assembly line, medical advances, Jobs’ iPhone o Social Revolution: the definition of family, gender roles, longer lives, ethnic diversity o Cultural revolution: art, music, film, television o Political/Economic Revolution: China, Brazil, India (Bollywood), the green movement Jerry Della Femina “Advertising is the most fun you can have with your clothes on” o Here’s why: It is incredibly diverse No two days are alike It is non-stop tension punctuated by epic joy and celebrations It allows creative people to be creative and non-creative people to be immersed in a creative environment It is rewarding… and the rewards are on TV, on your computer and in magazines! o *John Lewis ads
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